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Concert Program Cover

Fourth Concert of the 71st Season

Featuring Student Concerto Winners

Sunday, May 16th, 2010
Cordier Auditorium
Scott Humphries, Conductor

  Trumpet Concerto in E-Flat Major Franz Joseph Haydn  

I. Allegro

  Nicholas Kenny, trumpet  
  Lascia Ch'io pianga from Rinaldo G. F. Handel  
  Quando me'n vo soletta from La Bohème Puccini  
  Najah Monroe, soprano  
  Andante for Flute and Orchestra, K. 315 W. A. Mozart  
  Sarah Curry, flute
MSO Concerto Competition Winner 2010
  Motet No. 2, BWV 226
"The Spirit Also Helpeth Us"
J.S. Bach  
  with Manchester College A Cappella Choir
Dr. Debra Lynn, conductor
Quartet: Wallace Butts, Stephanie Green, Casey Lambert,
and Daniel Myers-Bowman
  Concert-Poéme in C Minor for Trumpet and Orchestra, Op. 113 Sergei Wassilenko  

I. Allegro drammatico
II. Molto sostenuto quasi adagio
III. Allegro vivace

  Dr. John Adler, trumpet  
  Dona Nobis Pacem Debra Lynn  
  with Manchester College A Cappella Choir
Dr. Debra Lynn, conductor
Solists: Casey Lambert, Cassie Whitaker, and Daniel Myers-Bowman
  Il Trovatore: Anvil Chorus Giuseppi Verdi  

Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Trumpet Concerto in E-Flat Major Franz Josef Haydn

Haydn is correctly considered a Classical composer, having developed the sonata-allegro form to the fullest. However, there are many touches of sturm und drang ("storm and stress") in his symphonies, which are strong hints of what later became known as Romanticism. This trumpet concerto has touches, especially in the latter movements, of the chromaticism usually associated with Romanticism. Haydn wrote this concerto for a new invention, the keyed trumpet, which allowed him greater melodic freedom. The instrument can respond to the direction taken by the orchestra regardless of the key.

The trumpet was designed with holes along the tubing, which were stopped by saxophone-like pads. This permitted much more virtuoso playing. The instrument is not used today, because the tone was somewhat damaged by the perforations, and the invention of the valved trumpet accomplished the same ends without the undesireable side-effects.

We hear only the first of the three movements (Allegro) today. Like almost all concerti of that period, the orchestra plays for about a minute before the entrance of the soloist. Listen for the cadenza shortly before the end of the movement. A cadenza is a part of the score left blank, with the intention that the soloist might like to improvise a rather flashy part. Concerti of the modern period commonly have cadenze, and in between periods have ones written by well-known performers, or even ones of varying difficulty written by the composer himself. Whether a cadenza is improvised or not, it should have an air of improvisation about it.

  Lascia Ch'io Pianga from Rinaldo George Frideric Handel

Handel's name has undergone several changes in spelling, as well as pronunciation, since he moved back and forth between Germany, the country of his birth, and England, the country of his choice. His father insisted that he study law, and forbade him access to an instrument, but he managed to hide a small clavichord (a relatively quiet keyboard instrument) in the attic.

He is best known in this country for his oratorio The Messiah, which he wrote in three weeks. He was a very fast composer. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians offers this anecdote: While working on Alexander Balus, his librettist gave him a line for Cleopatra, "Convey me to some peaceful shore." Handel cried out, "Damn your Iambics!" The librettist went into another room to change the line to trochees, only to find about three minutes later that Handel had set them as they stood.

Rinaldo was the first opera Handel wrote for London, and the first "Italian" operat to be written specifically for that city. The story is based on a work by Tasso, and was originally put into English,. But, since audiences expected Italian opera, it was translated to Italian for its debut.

The story takes place during the Crusades. The military officer, Rinaldo, was promised the hand of Almirena if he succeeds in taking Jerusalem from the Saracen chief, Argante. The sorceress, Armida, the consort of Argante, spirits Almirena away. After a number of twists and turns of the plot, Almirena and Rinaldo are united, and everyone lives happily ever after.

This aria is sung by Almmirena while she is captive in Jerusalem.

Lascia ch'io pianga
mia cruda sorte,
E che sospiri la libertà!
E che sospiri,
e che sospiri la libertà!
Lascia ch'io pianga
mia cruda sorte,
E che sospiri la libertà!

Il duolo infranga
queste ritorte
de miei martiri
sol per pietà,
de miei martiri
sol per pietà.
Let me weep over
my cruel fate,
And that I long for freedom!
And that I long,
and that I long for freedom!
Let me weep over
my cruel fate,
And that I long for freedom!

The duel infringes
these images
of my sufferings.
I pray for mercy
for my sufferances.
I pray for mercy.
  Quando me'n vo soletta from La Bohème Giacomo Puccini

Puccini was born into a musical family, taking organ lessons from his father until he was five years old. By the turn of the century, Puccini was the most popular of all opera composers. His first great success was Manon Lescaut. That was followed by La Bohème.

At the time it was written (1896), the word Bohème commonly meant "Gypsy." It has since become synonymous with what we now call "hippie life." It is a tragic story of a group of artists and intellectuals sharing a garret in Paris.

It's Christmas Eve, and they are out of money, firewood, food, and wine. It is too cold for the artist, Marcello, to hold his brush. Rodolfo, the poet, burns his work to get some heat. Then, Schaunard, the musician, surprises them with all they need to celebrate, because of a landfall from an English lord. As they start for the street, Rodolfo stays behind to tidy up, at which moment there is a knock on the door, and the neighbor, Mimi, enters, looking for a match. Rodolfo invites her to accompany them all to a tavern.

At the tavern, Musetta appears. She is an old flame of Marcello, and is eager to re-light his fire. She is a great admirer of herself, and sings the aria Quando me'n vo soletta.

  Quando m'en vo, quando m'en vo soletta per la via la gente sosta e mira, e la belleza mia tutta recerca in me, ricerca in me da capo a piè... As I wander through the streets, the people stop and stare and drink in my beauty from head to foot...  
  Andante for Flute and Orchestra, K. 315 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Not much is known for certain about the Andante for Flute and Orchestra (K. 315) in C major. It is presumed to have been written in 1778, a date decided by analyzing the paper and handwriting. It is known that at about this time, Mozart had a patron named Ferdinand Dejean (or DeJong), who was a surgeon with the Dutch East India Company, and who commissioned Mozart to composer "three easy little concertos and a pair of quartets for the flute." He completed only one concerto and one quartet for this commission, consequently receiving only half-pay. Apparently Dejean was not terribly pleased with the results of his commission, and it is speculated that the Andante for Flute and Orchestra was written as a substitute for the second movement of the Concerto for Flute, K. 313. The Andante is a compact piece in sonata form.

For a composer who was said to have an aversion to the flute, much preferring the clarinet, Mozart produced flute music of amazing quality, culminating in his 1791 opera Die Zauberflöte. Some listeners might notice a similarity to melodies played by Papageno to calm the beasts. I don't know how seriously we can take the allegation of aversion to the flute, when we consider that until the age of ten, he had an "insurmountable" horror of the horn. He seems to have surmounted that fear as he went on to creat great music for that instrument!

  Der Geist hilft unsrer Schwachheit auf
Motet No. 2, BWV 226
Johann Sebastian Bach

Like all the other musical forms with which we are familiar, the concerto, the overture, and the symphony, the motet has also undergone considerable evolution. The term originated in the thirteenth century when words were added to a form of plainsong, which involved only vocalization. The term is derived from the French word for "word," mot. During the Baroque period, the motet was almost always of religious content, often unaccompanied. Many were written for special occasions. This one was written on the occasion of the death of the Headmaster of the St. Thomas School, where Bach served as Kantor from 1723 until his own death. Because the funeral took place in St. Paul's, the University Church of Leipzig, where orchestras were permitted, this is one of the few Bach motets that have orchestral accompaniment.

The English title is The Spirit comes to the aid of our weakness.

  Concert-Poéme in C minor for Trumpet and Orchestra, Op. 113 Sergei Wassilenko

Sergei Wassilenko (also known as Sergey Nikiforovich Vassilenko) was a Russian composer, born in Moscow in 1872. He began his formal studies in music in 1888, and among his teachers was Grechaninov, but in 1891 to 1896 he studied law at Moscow University. His musical interests grew and, in 1895, he began to study at the Moscow Conservatory with Taneyev for theory, and then Ippolitov-Ivanov for composition. It was probably his connection with Ippolitov-Ivanov that prompted his great interest in orientalism, after an initial preoccupation with Russian folk-music. Wassilenko wrote several symphonies, ballets, operas, and concertos.

Today's work is in three movements: Allegro drammatico, Molto sostenuto quasi adagio, and allegro vivace.

The first movement opens with the trumpet in an upward flow, then slows with hints of folk melody and lyrical reminders of Scriabin and Rimsky-Korsakov. Roughly half way through the movement, there is a cadenza which, though of an improvised nature, includes references to earlier themes.

The second movement is slow and reflective.

The third movement is very fast, and begins with an upward flow reminding us of the opening of the first movement. Although I am aware of the subjectivity of such comments, I have to say that this movement is of an optimistic character, typical of Romantic and Late Romantic works. There is another cadenza, the orchestra repeats the openin motif, and the work ends with a triumphant flourish.

  Dona Nobis Pacem (for choir and orchestra) Debra Lynn
(b. 1961)

Debra Lynn is in her eleventh year at Manchester College where she serves as Chair of the Music Department, and the Director of Choral Organizations and Vocal Studies. Choral ensembles under her direction include the A Cappella Choir and Chamber Singers. Her ensembles have performed at various locations throughout the U.S. including Carnegie Hall in New York. In March, 2004, the A Cappella Choir traveled to Italy for a tour emphasizing world peace. The group performed in Saint Peter's Basilica in the Vatican, Saint Mark's Basilica in Venice, and several other places. In 2009, the A Cappella Choir toured Austria.

Lynn holds a Doctor of Arts in Music degree with an emphasis on choral conduction, voice performance, and music education. Before moving to North Manchester, Debra has held teaching and conducting positions at Northeast Missouri State University, William Jewell College, and Mid-America Nazarene College. She has served as opera chorus director for Illinois Opera Theatre, and as guest conductor for various composer forums and honor choir festivals.

Grant us peace.
Come let us go up into the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob.
He will teach us his ways, so that we may walk in his paths.
The law will go out from Zion, the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.
He will judge the nations and will settle disputes for many peoples.
They will beat their swords into plowshares and their spears into pruning hooks.
Nation will not take up sword against nation, nor will they train for war anymore.
Grant us peace.

  Anvil Chorus from Il Trovatore Giuseppe Verdi

Verdi was born in a small town, Roncole, not far from Parma. His parents owned a shabby inn. His musical aptitude was discovered by the local organist, who took him under his wing. Verdi never forgot his humble origin. When King Vittorio Emmanuele wished to knight him, Verdi replied, "Io son un paesano." (I am a peasant.) It has been reported that Verdi once said, "Of all composers, past and present, I am the least learned, I mean that in all seriousness, and by learning I do not mean knowledge of music."

His career began in tragedy. He lost his two children and his young wife within a span of two months, and, during this time, he was under contract to write a comic opera. Un giorno di regno opened in 1840 and was a failure. That, and the loss of his family, convinced him to stop composing, and it was only through the pleading of Barolomeo Merelli, La Scala's impresario, who literally forced a libretto on him, that Verdi reluctantly returned to composition. Two years later, his third opera opened at La Scala in Milan. Nabucco was a great success, and his long career took off.

Il Trovatore (The Troubadour) is from Verdi's middle period, produced in 1853. The Anvil Chorus from Il Trovatore, is probably the best known part of the opera. Many of you will remember it from television commercials for the Land-Rover. The setting is a gypsy camp in the mountains of Biscay. The rhythm is that of hammer strokes on anvils.

The men begin: "Look! The vast sky is casting off its somber robe of night, just as a widow puts by at last her dark veil of mourning. To work -- take up the hammer! What can make a gypsy merry like his gypsy sweetheart?"


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

  Violin I
Dessie Arnold, Concertmaster
Paula Merriman
Rachel Nowak +^
Ervin Orban
Ilona Orban
Liisa Wiljer

Violin II
Joyce Dubach *
Martha Barker
Erin Cole +^
Jennifer Iannuzzelli +^
Linda Kummernuss

Naida MacDermid *
Kelsey Airgood +
Julie Sadler
Margaret Sklenar

Margery Latchaw *
Cori Miner +^
Najah Monroe +^
Gena Taylor

Darrel Fiene *

Barbi Pyrah

Kathy Urbani *
Sarah Curry +^

George Donner *
Nyssa Gore +^
Deana Strantz +^

English Horn
George Donner
Lila D. Hammer *
Jennifer Hann
Mark W. Huntington

Bass Clarinet
Mark W. Huntington

Erich Zummack *

John Morse *
Nicole Anderson +^
Brittany Cook
Christen Humphries
Tammy Sprunger

Steven Hammer *
Nicholas Kenny +^

Jon Hartman *
Larry Dockter
Zach Dold +

Robert Lynn

Dave Robbins *

Nicholas Camacho +
Joshua Faudree +^
Robin Jo Steinman +

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes Keister Scholarship recipient

Manchester College A Cappella Choir

  Debra Lynn, conductor  
  Soprano I
Emily Abraham
Nicole Anderson *
Casey Faricelli
Casey Lambert *
Najah Monroe
Cassie Whitaker

Soprano II
Jackie Dobbert
Nicole Glassley
Kaylee Hawley
Kaitlin Hughes *
Rebecca Oren
Sheila Prather
Darcy Robins
Brittany Stevens

Tenor I
Wallace Butts *
Andrew Miller
Kahler Willits

Tenor II
Zach Blatz
Jason Eakins
Josh Huffer
Tyler Secor *
Alto I
Stephanie Green *
Kay Guyer
Geneviéve Kidwell
Brittany Kurtz
Rebekah Maiden
Jessica Rinehart
Carrie Waits

Alto II
Samantha Baker
Megan Bucher
Tonya Colwell
Aimee Hoffbauer
Katrina Kardys *
Katy McFadden *
Elizabeth Mishler

Bass I
Alex Drew
Stephen Hendricks
Daniel Myers-Bowman *
Chris Teeters

Bass II
Dylan Hiner
Derek Jones
Kyle Leffel *
Craig Morphew
Russell Turner

* Denotes section leader
John AdlerDr. John Adler has performed and given master-classes and recitals across the country and received numerous awards, including DownBeat magazine’s “Best Classical Instrumentalist” in 2003. He was one of three Americans invited to compete in the prestigious Maurice Andre Trumpet Competition held in Paris in 2006. John is also a strong advocate of the performance and commissioning of new music. In January, 2009, he recorded his first solo CD titled “Confronting Inertia," containing six new works commissioned for the project, which features classical trumpet works by jazz composers.

Dr. Adler has a very diverse performance resume. He has significant orchestral and chamber music experience, including performances with the Reno Philharmonic, the symphony orchestras of Eugene, Miami, and Roanoke, the Kandinsky Trio, the Palm Beach Pops, Festival Brass, Opera Roanoke, and the Oregon Festival of American Music Sinfonia Orchestra. Additionally, John has shared the stage with numerous jazz greats including John Hollenbeck, Maria Schneider, Bobby Shew, and Conrad Herwig, and has played lead trumpet in the Jaco Pastorius Big Band, the Denis Noday Big Band, the Reno Jazz Orchestra, and the Grammy Award-Winning University of Miami Concert Jazz Band. He is also a founding member of the jazz chamber group Seven Minus. Adler joined the faculty at Virginia Tech in 2006 as Assistant Professor of Trumpet/Jazz Studies. He will join the faculty of the University of Northern Colorado as Assistant Professor of Trumpet beginning in the fall of 2010.

A native of Reno Nevada, John is a graduate of the University of Nevada-Reno, the University of Oregon, and has recently completed his DMA at the University of Miami, where he studied with former principal trumpet of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Craig Morris.