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Concert Program Cover

Second Concert of the 61st Season

Holiday Extravaganza V

Sunday, December 5th, 1999
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Water Music Suite in F G. F. Handel  

III. Allegro

  Magnificat G.B. Pergolesi  

Et misericordia
Deposuit potentes
Suscepit Israel
Sicut locutus est
Sicut erat in principio

  Manchester College Choral Society
Debra Lynn, conductor
Carlotta Olinger, soprano solo
Sandy Funk, alto solo
Mark Schwartz, tenor solo
Dwight Farringer, bass solo
  Polonaise in C, Op. 49 Anatol Liadov  
  Serenade of Carols Morton Gould  

I. Kings of Orient - The Babe of Bethlehem - Rocking - Greensleeves
II. Boar's Head Carol - Patapan - Carol of Service
III. Come, Love We God - Coventry Carol - The Holly and the Ivy
IV. Irish Carol - God Rest Ye Merry Gentlemen - Wassail Song - My Dancing Day

  Sleigh Ride Leroy Anderson  
  The Twelve Days of Christmas arr. John Finnegan  

Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  The Water Music Suite in F -- Mvt. III George Frideric Handel

Handel was an exact contemporary of Bach, born in the same year, and dying only nine years later than Bach. Both came from north German middle-class families; both were Protestants, and both took their religion seriously. However, while Bach remained a provincial, family man, Handel became a well-traveled man-of-the-world. His stay in Italy stamped his music with an Italianate quality most notable in his oratorios.

Handel had a short temper and a ready wit. Once, when an English singer objected to the way Handel was accompanying him on the harpsichord, and threatened to stamp it to pieces if Handel didn't do things HIS way, Handel is said to have replied: "Let me know when you will do that, and I will advertise it; for I am sure more people will come to see you jump than to hear you sing."

Handel wrote the Water Music on a commission from King George for a royal party on the Thames. The music was performed in 1717 by an orchestra of fifty, unusually large for the period, and it was a tremendous success, having to be repeated three times. The music consisted of three suites, of which we hear a portion of the third today. There have been a number of different arrangements, most omitting several sections. The organization of the pieces varies from version to version. For instance, the final movement in the well-known arrangement by Sir Hamilton Harty appears as "the sixth movement" in some versions. From the third suite being used today, we hear the third movement: allegro.

  Magnificat Giovanni Battista Pergolese

Pergolese (sometimes spelled Pergolesi) was born near Ancona, Italy, and died near Naples at age twenty-six. His early death proved to be a good career move, as his popularity soared. Music publishers of the period exploited this popularity by publishing the works of lesser known composers under the name of Pergolese. In the short time he lived, he produced at least fifteen operas, the most famous of which is La Serva Padrona.

Pergolese, in his short life, had a great effect on French music. His La Serva Padrona, when performed in Paris, contributed to a great controversy between those who preferred Italian opera and those who preferred French opera. A group of Italian bouffons or comedians, was invited to Paris, and they performed many Italian operas, reviving Pergolese's La Serva Padrona which had caused some stir six years before. This was toward the end of the Baroque era, when counterpoint was falling into disfavor, and simpler, more direct and more singable music was coming into vogue. This became known as the "gallant style," or Rococo. One camp, known as the King's Corner party, represented the nationalist viewpoint, and the other, the Queen's Corner party, represented the anti-nationalist viewpoint (so-called, because the respective groups sat under the King's or the Queen's box in the theatre). Rousseau, in the minority group favoring Italian opera, argued that "there is neight measure nor melody in French music, because the language itself is not susceptible of either .... ...I conclude that the French have no music, and never can have any, or, if they ever have, so much the worse for them." This controversy was known as "The war of the comedians." Pergolese's music is best known today through an orchestration by Stravinsky in a suite called Pulcinella.

A "Magnificat" is a hymn to the Virgin Mary (My soul doth magnify the Lord) from the gospel of St. Luke.

  Polonaise in C, Op. 49 Anatol Liadov

By almost any standards, including his own, Liadov (also spelled Lyadov) would be considered a minor composer. He was notoriously lazy, and rarely tackled any project as demanding as an opera or a symphony. He never finished even the few such projects he had contemplated. For a while, he played the violin, then gave it up. He played the piano, but gave that up as well.

He was so aware of his chronic procrastination that on one occasion when he had been given an assignment to write a fugue, he told his sister, with whom he was living, not to give him dinner until the fugue was written. According to Shostakovich, who reports the story, dinner-time rolled around, and the fugue was not written. "I won't feed you because you haven't completed the assignment. you asked me to do that yourself," said the sister. "Very well," said Liadov, "I'll dine with Auntie."

At the St. Petersburg Conservatory, his tardiness in completing assignments and his failure even to attend classes resulted in his expulsion by the director, Azanchevsky. When he asked the teacher whose class he had been skipping to intercede on his behalf, his plea was brusquely rejected. The teacher, Rimsky-Korsakov, later regretted the dismissal of a student he considered "talented past telling," and blamed himself for his bureaucratic inflexibility. He suspected that his "inhuman regard for forms" was the result of his study of counterpoint!

Liadov was a dreamer, enchanted by the world of fantasy, and eager to escape the world around him, which he found to be "tedious, trying, purposeless, terrible." His best-known works, Kikimora, Baba-Yaga, The Enchanted Lake, and Eight Russian Folk Songs exemplify this love of fantasy, as well as his love of Russian folk music.

After his reinstatement at the Conservatory, his skill at orchestration became apparent, and his first orchestral work, The Bride of Messina, so impressed his professors that he was appointed professor of harmony and theory. One of Liadov's famous students, Sergei Prokofiev, reports that he was less interested in teaching than he was in pursuing his own interests. However, he was very active as conductor of the Musical Society, and championed the works of young Russian composers.

A Polonaise is a "dance" with three beats to the measure. It is of Polish origin, and is French for "Polish." It is doubtful that anyone actually danced to the typical polonaise. Severl authorities suggest that it should be considered more of a processional. Niecks, in his book Chopin, says that "Strictly speaking, the Polonaise, which has been called a marche dansante, is not so much a dance as a figured walk, or procession, full of gravity and a certain courtly etiquette."

The choice by Liadov of the polonaise form (he wrote several) is typical of his interest in Slavic folk music. He was an important collector of folk music which he incorporated into his attractive (and short) compositions.

  Serenade of Carols Morton Gould

Morton Gould is one of those American composers, like Aaron Copland, who has tried to establish an "American idiom" by means of the incorporation of both jazz and folk elements in his music. His music with a jazzy flavor reminds one of Gershwin, but the two are very different sorts of composers. While Gershwin had achieved popular success before he began to write "serious" music like the Concerto in F and the Rhapsody in Blue (he wrote only the piano part, leaving the orchestration to Ferde Grofé), Gould came at jazz "from the top," as they say, starting with serious music and moving to jazz. He began to composer at the age of four, and graduated from New York University when he was fifteen. He was classically trained, but began playing on Broadway to earn a living. He played at Radio City Music Hall for a while, and then moved to NBC. It was his radio show that brought his name to the public.

Gould's music not only sounds American, it even looks American (the titles, that is). Among his works are: Chorale and Fugue in Jazz, Americana Suite, A Cowboy Rhapsody, Spirituals for Orchestra, A Lincoln Legend, Swing Symphonietta, Boogie-Woogie Etude, Big City Blues, Concerto for Tap Dancer and Orchestra, A Foster Gallery, Minstrel Show, Fall River Legend, and more, on distinctly American subjects.

  Sleigh Ride Leroy Anderson

Leroy Anderson was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1908, and died in Woodbury, Connecticut, in 1975. He is best known for his attractive melodies and jaunty rhythms in such pieces as The Golden Years and The Syncopated Clock.

Anderson studied composition at Harvard with Georges Enesco and Walter Piston. He was a linguist, specializing in German and Scandinavian languages, and served with the U.S. Intelligence in Iceland and in the U.S. during the Second World War. In addition to the well-known pieces mentioned, he wrote a number of short works for unusual "instruments" such as the typewriter, sandpaper, and sleigh bells. Without a doubt, his most famous composition is Sleigh Ride.

  The Twelve Days of Christmas arr. John Finnegan
(b. 1926)

From 1558 to 1829, Catholics in England were prohibited from any practice of their faith. People caught with written evidence of Catholic belief could be executed. In order to make it easy to learn the catechism, a mnemonic device was created: the song "The Twelve Days of Christmas." According to a web posting of the Catholic Information Network, the hidden meanings are as follows:

The "true love" mentioned in the song doesn't refer to an earthly suitor, it refers to God Himself. The "me" who receives the presents refers to every baptized person. The partridge in a pear tree is Jesus Christ, the Son of God. In the song, Christ is symbolically presented as a mother partridge which feigns injury to decoy predators from her helpless nestlings, much in memory of the expression of Christ's sadness over the fate of Jerusalem: "Jerusalem! Jerusalem! How often would I have sheltered thee under my wings, as a hen does her chicks, but thou wouldst not have it so..."

The other symbols mean the following:

2 Turtle Doves = the Old and New Testaments
3 French Hens = Faith, Hope and Charity, the Theological Virtues
4 Calling Birds = the Four Gospels and/or the Four Evangelists
5 Golden Rings = the first Five Books of the Old Testament, the "Pentateuch,"
      which gives the history of man's fall from grace.
6 Geese A-laying = the six days of creation
7 Swans A-swimming = the seven gifts of the Holy Spirit, the seven sacraments
8 Maids A-milking = the eight beatitudes
9 Ladies Waiting = the nine Fruits of the Holy Spirit
10 Lords A-leaping = the Ten Commandments
11 Pipers Piping = the eleven faithful apostles
12 Drummers Drumming = the twelve points of doctrine in the Apostle's Creed


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

Linda Kanzawa Ard, Concertmaster
Joyce Dubach *
Martha Barker
Christina Beyer +^
Amy Bixler +
Emma Doud
Jaime Eller +^
Matt Hendryx +
Rosemary Manifold
Rod Morrison
Margaret Piety
Rebekah Yoder +

Naida MacDermid *
Peter Collins
Robert Elder
Eric Stalter +^

Tim Spahr *
Valerie Goetz Doud
Robert Lynn

Darrel Fiene * (co-)
Randy Gratz * (co-)
George Scheerer

Barbi Pyrah

Kathy Urbani *
Carol Snodgrass

Rita K. Merrick *
George Donner

Lila D. Hammer *
Jane Grandstaff
Bass Clarinet
Mark W. Huntington

Erich Zummack *
Mike Harley

Nancy A. Bremer *
John Morse
William Klickman

Steven Hammer *
Richard Pepple * (asst.)
Nathan Reynolds +^
Shawn Sollenberger +^

Jon Hartman * (co-)
Jeremy Dawkins *+^ (co-)
Joel Roman +

William DeWitt

David Mendenhall

David Robbins
Greg Wolff

Debora DeWitt
Robin Gratz

Robin Gratz

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient

Manchester Choral Society

  Debra Lynn, conductor  
Christine Beery
Alexa Bucher
Alicia Hagan
Wanda E. Miller
Carlotta Jean Olinger
Alicia Roberts

Howard C. McKee
Mark Schwartz
Elizabeth Allen
Chris Beyer
Abigail Falkiner
Sandy Funk
Penny Heddings
Jean Nelson
Kacey Schroeder

Dwight Farringer
Charles Nelson
Eric Sitek
Spencer X.M. Song
The Manchester Choral Society is an inter-generational ensemble that combines the talents of Manchester College faculty, staff, and students with other members of the North Manchester community and its neighboring towns. On May 14, the Choral Society will join the Manchester Symphony Orchestra in a performance of Faure's Requiem and Gabrieli's In Ecclesiis.
Debra Lynn is in her third year as assistant professor of music at Manchester College where she serves as director of choral organizations and instructor of applied voice. In addition to the Manchester Choral Society, Debra conducts the A Cappella Choir and Chamber Singers. She recently completed doctoral studies at Ball State University, where she served for three years as assistant conductor for all vocal ensembles.  Dr. Lynn has studied conducting with Douglas Amman, Paul Vermel, Paul Crabb, and Arnold Epley. Debra has held conducting and teaching positions at Northeast Missouri State University, William Jewell College, Mid-America Nazarene College, and New Paseo Academy of Fine and Performing Arts. Debra is married to tubist Robert Lynn. They reside in North Manchester with their four daughters: Bethany, Abby, and twins Emily and Erin.