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Concert Program Cover

Third Concert of the 59th Season

Orchestra Showcase

Sunday, March 8th, 1998
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Overture to The Marriage of Figaro, K. 492 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  
  Concerto No. 3 in E-flat for Two Horns Antonio Rosetti  
  Nancy A. Bremer and Bryan Gibson, horn  
  Concertino, Op. 26 Carl Maria von Weber  
  Lila D. Hammer, clarinet  
  Cello Concerto in B-flat Major Luigi Boccherini  

I. Allegro moderato

  Tim Spahr, cello  
  Der alte Brummbär, Op. 210 Julius Fučik  
  Erich Zummack, bassoon  
  Concertino, Op. 45, No. 7 for Trombone Lars-Erik Larsson  

III. Allegro giocoso

  Larry Dockter, trombone  
  English Horn Concerto in C Giuseppe Ferlendis
(rev. Marcia Krauss)

I. Allegro comodo

  Rita Kimberley, English horn  
  Hungarian Dances Johannes Brahms  

No. 5 - Allegro
No. 6 - Vivace


Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Overture to Le Nozze di Figaro
(The Marriage of Figaro)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

The "overture," like any other musical form, has undergone an evolution. Originally, operas and oratorios began after a brief fanfare, or even with no introduction at all. After a time, composers began using what amounted to short suites, sometimes called "sinfonie" (Italian for "symphonies"), to set the mood for the coming play, opera, or oratorio. It wasn't until the late classic period that composers got the idea of giving hints in the overtures of themes to come in the operas themselves. Finally, the overture degenerated into a simple medly of the principal arias to be heard in the opera (as in the American Musical) or to brief introductions leading straight into the action (as in Wagner's Ring Cycle, e.g. Die Walküre).

Mozart wrote overtures of two types, both the sort wherein important themes from the opera are first introduced (as in Die Zauberflöte, or Magic Flute) and the kind that simply set the mood of the drama without setting forth anything to be related thematically to the opera itself. The Overture to the Marriage of Figaro is of the latter. The Marriage of Figaro is an opera buffa (or comic opera) in the Italian style, based on a play of Beaumarchais, which was a sequel to his famous "Barber of Seville." Mozart chose to work with the sequel rather than the original, probably because Paisiello had already based an opera on that one which was popular in Mozart's time.

After Paisiello's had faded from memory, Rossini wrote another version, the now famous "Barber of Seville." It is thus that one engaging character, Figaro, the barber, became the central figure of three operas by three different composers.

The Overture, as mentioned, is not a foretaste of themes to come, but is, perhaps, a foretaste of things to come in the sense that it quickly establishes the mood of one of the most delightful and listenable operas in the repertoire. Its form is typical of the "pre-synopsis" sort of overture, in being patterned after the first movement of the symphony. It is in a truncated sonata form, with a first and second subject, some modulation, almost a variation in lieu of a development, followed by a recapitulation. All very brief, and all with a pulsing rhythm that brings out the amateur conductor in all of us.

  Concerto No. 3 in E-flat for Two Horns -- Mvt. 1 Antonio Rosetti
(c. 1750-1792)

In the eighteenth century, the Hapsburg empire included many small courts which provided patronage to musicians from all over Europe. The Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein was one such patron, and one of the most discerning. In 1773, a twenty-four years old Bohemian named Anton Rösler took up residence in the court of the prince as servant and double-bass player. His talent was soon recognized and he rose to the position of Hofmusikus, or Court Musician. Thirteen years later he was made Kapellmeister, and remained in that post for the next three years. Upon arriving at Wallerstein, Rösler changed his name to Antonio Rosetti, because Italian composers were in vogue. It is under the name of Rosetti that he is known today.

Rosetti's compositions, even after he left the service of the Prince to become Kapellmeister at the Mecklenburg-Schwerin court of Ludwigslust, were scored to suit the forces of the Wallerstein orchestra, which among other things had two good horn players during Rosetti's tenure. Rosetti had great rapport with members of the orchestra, since many of them were Bohemians like him, including the two horn players, Joseph Nagel and Franz Zwierzina. His other works, not just his horn concertos, including striking passages for the horns.

  Concertino for Clarinet, Op. 26 Carl Maria von Weber

Weber was born sixteen years after Beethoven, and died one year before him. He had a very successful career, and produced an enormous number of works considering the short time he lived, including many lieder with guitar accompaniment, chamber works, concerti, and, of course, a number of Singspiele, a kind of light operas with spoken dialogue interspersed with songs. In fact, although purists would say he wrote only one true opera, Euryanthe, that is fully sung, Weber advanced the art to the point that his best-known Singspiele such as Der Freischütz, are thought of as operas.

In fact, Weber is known primarily for his opera Der Freischütz, a Romantic "opera" in the grand manner. He is credited with the invention of Romantic opera in general, and Geman nationalistic opera in particular. He had a great impact on Richard Wagner. He had the Romantic's preoccupation with the idea of painting tonal pictures, together with a nostalgia for by-gone times and the mythology of his country. The writer Harry Halbreich suggests that Weber was the first to use the horn and the clarinet to express the voices of nature.

His Romantic tendencies were, however, tempered by a love of classical order. He idolized Mozart, and he was strongly influenced by his teacher, Michael Haydn (Joseph's brother). He even criticized Beethoven for a lack of classical restraint. One might, therefore, expect Weber's music to be an admirable blend of innovation and tradition. It is, indeed, surprising that it has not gained a wider audience.

Weber was a child prodigy, his huge hands contributing to his piano virtuosity. He wrote his first Singspiel when he was twelve, successfully staged his Das Waldmädchen when he was fourteen, and became music director of the Breslau town theater when he was seventeen. No doubt he acquired a great deal of stage experience as he accompanied his father on theatrical tours throughout Germany.

His interest in the clarinet began in 1811, when he met Heinrich Baermann, the greatest clarnietist in Germany. He wrote the Concertino for Baermann, which met with immediate success and spawned a series of commissions for the clarinet and other wind instruments.

Concertino has two meanings: In the days of Corelli and Bach, it was the smaller part of the orchestra playing rather as a solo instrument against the larger, or ripieno part, in a Concerto Grosso. In the Romantic period, it was simply a shorter and lighter type of concerto. Weber's Concertino lasts about nine minutes. It begins dramatically, with full orchestra, but then alternates between pastoral and energetic episodes. The final portion has an unexpected repeat two-note motif on the horns, a reminder of the love Weber had for the brass in general and horns in particular ... a characteristic further developed by Weber's greatest champion, Richard Wagner.

  Cello Concerto in B-flat -- Mvt. 1 Luigi Boccherini

Boccherini (pronounced "bok-er-EEN-ee") is one of those composers best known for one piece, although his total production was prodigious. The minuet from his Quintet in E, opus 11, is familiar to music lovers who otherwise might know nothing of Boccherini. He was born in Lucca, Italy, and died in Madrid, Spain. He was almost an exact contemporary of Franz Josef Haydn, and was a grea admirer of Haydn. Boccherini was sometimes referred to as "the wife of Haydn," a reference not to his sexual orientation, but to the fact that his music followed the principles of Haydn, but was more decorative ... less forceful.

Boccherini's early career was in the Italian tradition established by Corelli, marked by a strong sense of melody ... a sort of "song without words." It has been called bel canto writing. He was an expert cellist, and through his concerts in Paris, came to the attention of the Spanish ambassador who invited him to Madrid. He later became a court composer for Frederick the Great, and continued that occupation until Frederick's death ten years later. He then returned to Madrid, where he lived until his death in 1805.

Boccherini found the Spanish musical climate very hospitable to his style. Where before, he had incorporated elements of Italian folk music into his works, now he was employing Spanish effects. He wrote many chamber works for guitar, and transcribed many others for that instrument. It is clear that he was attracted to the guitar not simply to please his patrons (though that was important as he became increasingly impoverished), but genuinely liked the instrument's sound. Even in works featuring other instruments, he had them sounding rather like the guitar.

He wrote over 250 works almost evenly divided between string quintets and quartets, sixty trios, thirty-three sonatas, twenty symphonies, and four concerti for the cello.

In the Classical period, it was customary to have a tutti or full orchestral introduction, sometimes lasting over five minutes, before the solo instrument is heard. In this concerto, the solo instrument is more fully integrated with the orchestra, entering scarcely twenty seconds from the start of the movement. This probably results from the fact that the Boccherini concerto was re-arranged by the 19th Century cellist, composer, and teacher Friedrich Grützmacher. While serving in a position once occupied by Boccherini as Kammer-Virtuos for the King of Saxony, Grützmacher discovered the score for the cello concerto in the Dresden State Library. The second movement was not very good, so Grützmacher substituted another Boccherini work for it, to good effect. He made minor changes in the outer movements, as well, bringing the work "up to date" by providing an early entry for the solo instrument.

Just over half way through the movement, the orchestra pauses, and lets the soloist go it alone. This is the cadenza a virtuoso section, sometimes improvised, and always having an improvisational character even when it is written out. There are effects in this cadenza which imitate the strumming of a flamenco guitar, testifying to the influence of Spanish folk music on this composer. A somewhat modern turn can be heard as the cadenza ends. Ordinarily, a soloist performs a "shake" or drawn-out trill allowing the orchestra to re-enter the fray (for a concerto is technically an argument between the solo instrument and the orchestra). Boccherini allows the orchestra to "sneak" into the work almost unnoticed.

This cello concerto is the second most popular piece by Boccherini, after the minuet previously mentioned. His works are entering the recorded repertoire, and perhaps the future holds more for him than the past, though it is too late for him to benefit. He was buried in a pauper's grave where he lay until 1927 when his body was exhumed, transported back to Italy and reinterred in Lucca, his birthplace.

  Der alte Brummbär, Op. 210 Julius Fučik

Fučik was born in Prague, and died in Berlin. He was an expert violinist and bassoonist, studying with some of the best-known teachers of his age. He studied composition with no less a composer than Dvořák. Fučik's compositions, though many, are not very well known. The opus number of the work we are to hear today testifies to the vast output of this composer. They are mostly short pieces hoever ... marches and waltzes, pieces written for the band.  These short works are often orchestrated as thoroughly as symphonies, and that fact may account for their continued presence in the repertoire. Also, it should be no surprise, coming from a master bassoonist, that the works show off that instrument to good effect.

Der alte Brummbär means "The Old Grouch," and while I don't know the reason for that name, the humor in this "comic polka" will be apparent in the music.

  Concertino, Op. 45, No. 7 for Trombone -- Mvt. 3 Lars-Erik Larsson

Lars-Erik Larsson is a Swedish composer whose style has passed through several phases. His early music shows the influences of the Finn, Sibelius, and the Dane, Carl Nielsen. This period in his career could be described as "Late Romantic." Then, in the 1930s, he went into a "Neo-Classical" period during which he wrote what has been described as "elegant, smooth-flowing, humorous serenade music." His Sinfonietta for strings, of this period, won worldwide recognition at the 1934 music festival in Florence.

In the mid-1940s, his style underwent another change when he fell under the influence of the German, Paul Hindemith. Finally, he found a synthesis of these various influences and returned to a kind of inventive Romanticism heard in the work today, the seventh of twelve concertos he wrote between 1955 and 1957. Each of the concertos was written for a different instrument, all the principal members of the winds, and the strings, plus the piano.

The 3rd movement of the Concerto for Trombone is in ternary form, with a very lively beginning and end, straddling a slow, thoughtful middle section.

  English Horn Concerto in C -- Mvt. 1 Giuseppe Ferlendis
(rev. Marcia Krauss)

Giuseppe Ferlendis was a member of a musical family. His brother Antonio played with him as oboist and English horn player. His elder son, Angelo, was an expert oboist, and his younger son, Alessandro, was an excellent oboist and English horn player. Giuseppe is credited with improvements to the design of the English horn. He was almost an exact contemporary of Mozart, who wrote a concerto for him, probably the one later reorchestrated for flute, K. 314. Although Franz Joseph Haydn had some unkind words for him, Michael Haydn wrote a quartet for Ferlendis.

He wrote two concerti for oboe, which some critics report as "musically uninteresting, but well-written for the instrument." In 1920, French musicologist Georges de Saint-Foix suggested that the second of the two concerti might have been written for the English horn. English horn player Marcia Kraus decided to reconstruct the concerto as it might have been for the English horn. She began her work in 1986, and over the years, has revised it in many ways until it has reached the state in which we hear it today. For a number of reasons, Ms. Kraus had not only to make numerous alterations, but to add original music in the style she believes faithful to that of Ferlendis. The first movement of the concerto is the one least changed by Ms. Kraus. It is this movement we hear today.

  Hungarian Dances Nos. 5 and 6 Johannes Brahms

Brahms was the son of double-bass player, who encouraged the young man, though he did not have the money to finance a formal musical education. The boy was a quick learner, presumably from his father, and by the age of six was giving public concerts. That is "public concerts," if you count the 19th century version of piano bars. Brahms, like Toulouse-Lautrec, spent a lot of evenings in unsavory places, and even after he was a well-established and honored composer, could be counted on to entertain the clients of taverns with music-hall tunes he remembered playing in his youth.

Liszt admired his work, and so did Robert and Clara Schumann, who helped him get his work published. Clara was particularly helpful to the furthering of his career by performing his piano pieces often, sometimes before they were published. Brahms moved in with the Schumanns and soon fell in love with Clara, though he was too shy to declare himself, and never married her (after the death of Robert), nor anyone else. He said that when he was of the marrying age, his music was not being well received, and while that did not bother him because he new that one day he would come into his own, he couldn't bear the thought of coming home to the reproachful eyes of a wife after an unsuccessful concert.

When Brahms was twenty years old, he accompanied the Hungarian violinist, Eduard Reményi on a concert tour during which they passed through many country towns and villages, where they were introduced to Gypsy tunes. From this experience, Brahms published a set of "Hungarian Dances," and later, a second set. Brahms never claimed authorship of these dances, remarking that he had supplied "...genuine gypsy children, which I did not beget but merely brought up with bread and milk." Reményi, on the other hand, claimed authorship, saying that he had supplied Brahms with his own versions of gypsy music, without signing them, as a joke on Brahms. if true, the joke is on Reményi, since musicologists do not believe him, and credit Brahms with having distilled the essence of gypsy music from his notes taken on the spot.

Brahms wrote these dances for two pianos, but they have been transcribed many times for different instruments. Brahms, himself, wrote a one-piano transcription. Among those who have orchestrated some of all of the dances are Johan Andreas Hallén, Paul Juon, Martin Schmeling, Hans Gál, Albert Parlow, Antonin Dvořák, Joseph Joachim, and William Ryden, who provided the version we hear today. No doubt the most famous dance is No. 5, having been featured in the 1984 film Unfaithfully Yours in the hilarious "dueling violins" sequence between Dudley Moore and Armand Assante.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

Linda Kanzawa Ard, Concertmaster
Joyce Dubach *
Dessie Arnold
Matt Baker +^
Martha Barker
Christina Beyer +^
Gordon Collins
Jamie Eller +^
Sherry Gajewski
Matt Hendryx +
Margaret Piety
Moo Il Rhee

Naida MacDermid *
Peter Collins
Tim O'Neil
Eric Stalter +^

Earle E. Perez *
Tim Spahr * (asst.)
Nicholas Bond
Tony Spahr
Preston Thomas +^

Randy Gratz *
George Scheerer
Darrel Fiene

Madalyn Metzger +^

Kathy Urbani *
Barbi Pyrah
Rita K. Merrick *
George Donner
Ben Wiseman

Lila D. Hammer *
Diana Nixon

Erich Zummack *
Michael Trentacosti

Nancy A. Bremer *
John Morse
Bryan Gibson
Elizabeth Lowe

Steven Hammer *
Richard Pepple * (asst.)
Scott D. Steenburg *+^ (co-)
Shawn Sollenberger +^

D. Larry Dockter *
Jon Hartman
Jeremy Dawkins +^

Mark Sternberg +

David Mendenhall
David Robbins

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient
Nancy Bremer, horn, attended Ball State University where she majored in music performance. She was a member of the BSU Concert Orchestra and Horn Ensemble. Mrs. Bremer has been a member of the Manchester Symphony Orchestra since 1986 and has been principal horn since 1988. She is a member of the Appleseed Woodwind Quintet, which performs throughout the northern Indiana region. Mrs. Bremer has studied with Dr. Fred Ehnes, Professor Jerry Franks, and is currently studying with John Morse.
Bryan Gibson, horn, began his professional music career in 1982 in the United States Marine Band music system. His training in music includes studies at Indiana University, Ball State University and the Armed Forces School of Music. After leaving the Marine Corps in 1988, Bryan returned to Fort Wayne and since that time has been a substitute performer with the Fort Wayne Philharmonic, Marion Symphony Orchestra, Lima Symphony Orchestra, and Kalamazoo Symphony Orchestra. Bryan has studied horn with Michael Lewellen, principal horn with the Fort Wayne Philharmonic, and Fred Ehnes, professor of horn at Ball State University. He has been a member of the Manchester Symphony Orchestra for nine years, serving as principal, co-principal, and second horn, and is in his third season as third horn with the Lima Symphony Orchestra.
Lila Hammer, clarinet, hold a bachelor's degree in music education from Manchester College and a master's degree in communication from Purdue University. While a student at Manchester, she was a winner in the collegiate young artist competition and performed Mozart's Concerto for Clarinet with the Manchester Symphony Orchestra. After working in college admissions at Valparaiso University, Manchester College and Indiana-Purdue Fort Wayne, Ms. Hammer returned to Manchester as Registrar in December of 1996. Lila studied clarinet with Robert Jones and participated in the Manchester Symphony Orchestra and the Manchester College Woodwind Quintet as a college student. Since her college days, Lila has played with the Valparaiso University Orchestra, the Manchester Clarinet Choir, and has been a member of the MSO for the past ten years.
Tim Spahr, cello, is a native of Peru, Indiana. He began studying the cello in 1980 and is a former student of Carla Slotterback, Arkady Orlovsky, and Tsuyoshi Tsutsumi. He graduated from Indiana University with a B.S. in Music and History in 1994. Before going to college, Tim was a member of the Kokomo and Manchester Symphonies. He recently rejoined these orchestras after completing his J.D. at the Indiana University School of Law. He is now a practicing attorney in Peru.
Erich Zummack, bassoon, was born in Rosenheim, Germany, and soon after moved with his family to Los Angeles, California, where he began playing the bassoon in high school. He studied bassoon with Don Christlieb while attending Pierce College, majoring in bassoon performance and music composition. In 1988, Erich became co-principle bassoonist with the Wyoming Symphony and second bassoonist in the Nebraska Panhandle Symphony, as well as principal bassoon with the Cheyenne Camerata Orchestra. He also played bassoon with two professional woodwind quintets and was principal bassonist/manager of the Cheyenne New Music Concort - a group dedicated to the performance of music by living composers. He has appeared as soloist on numerous occassions in both California and Wyoming. Erich currently works for Fox Products in South Whitley. In addition to playing principal bassoon with the Manchester Symphony Orchestra, he performs with many other orchestra in northern Indiana. Erich is also an accompllished player of the Highland bagpipe and the alto recorder.
D. Larry Dockter, trombone, graduated from Manchester College with a B.S. degree, and earned a Master of Music Education in trombone from Indiana University at Bloomington. At Indiana University he studied trombone with Keith Brown, formerly of the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra, and Lewis Van Haney, former member of the New York Philharmonic. Mr. Dockter is active as a free-lance musician and has a small band, "Larry and Friends." His career as a music educator includes many years with the Manchester Community Schools and he maintains a studio for guitar and brass students. He is featured with Foster Brown on the 1997 CD "Children's Nature Songs." Larry's tenure with the Manchester Symphony Orchestra extends for over thirty seasons.
Rita Kimberley, English horn, received her undergraduate training at Illinois State University where she studied with John Ferrillo and Tim Hurtz, and also Grover Schiltz of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. She then won English horn positions in the Illinois Symphony Orchestra in Springfield, the Peoria Symphony Orchestra, and principal oboe in the Peoria Civic Opera. she has also performed with the Illinois Chamber Orchestra, Chicago Lyric Opera, Fort Wayne Philharmonic, South Bend Symphony, and at the Bodensee Festival in Friedrichshafen, Germany. For the past four years, Rita has been on the staff of Fox Products in South Whitley as oboe finisher and tester, and has served as principal oboe in the Manchester Symphony Orchestra.