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Concert Program Cover

Fourth Concert of the 58th Season

Collegiate Solo Competition Winners

Sunday, May 18th, 1997
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Overture to Die Fledermaus, Op. 362 Johann Strauss II  
  "Deh vieni non tardar" from Le Nozze di Figaro Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  
  "Oh! mio babbino caro" from Gianni Schicchi Giacomo Puccini  
  Rachael George, soprano  
  Flute Concerto No. 1 in G Major, K. 313 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  

I. Allegro Maestoso

  Madalyn Metzger, flute  
  Gershwin in Hollywood George Gershwin
(arr. R. R. Bennett)

That Back Bay Polka - A Foggy Day - Slap that Bass - Love Walked In - Nice Work if You Can Get It - One, Two, Three - Love Is Here to Stay - They Can't Take That Away from Me

  English Folk Song Suite Ralph Vaughan Williams
(arr. Gordon Jacob)

I. March: "Seventeen Come Sunday"
II. Intermezzo: "My Bonny Boy"
III. March: "Folk Songs from Somerset"

  "O zittre nicht" from Die Zauberflöte Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  
  Jennifer Double, soprano  
  Selections from Kiss Me Kate Cole Porter
(arr. R. R. Bennett)

Wunderbar - Why Can't You Behave? - Another Openin' Another Show - Always True to You in My Fashion - Were Thine that Special Face - I Sing of Love - So in Love


Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Overture to Die Fledermaus, Op. 362 Johann Strauss II

Die Fledermaus (The Bat) is a Viennese Singspiel, or operetta. The structure of a Singspiel is similar to that of a Broadway musical, in that spoken dialog is common. Recordings of Singspiele usually omit the spoken part, which makes it hard to follow the plot, especially as in the case of Die Fledermaus, when there are characters who have NO singing parts, and sometimes long speeches.

Often, foreign titles are translated to English even when the work is sung in the original language; we frequently see The Marriage of Figaro, and then hear it in Italian. The case of Die Fledermaus is the opposite. We use the German title even when it is sung in English. This is because it was thought that few people would go to see a musical called The Bat. That, of course, was before Phantom of the Opera.

There is no vampire in The Bat. In fact, the title refers to an event which occurred before the curtain rises. Dr. Falke, a notary, had gone to a costume ball dressed as a bat. He drank too much, and when he passed out, his friends laid him out on the sidewalk, so that he awoke in full costume to the derisive shouts of the school children. Ever since then, he had been jeered at as "Doctor Bat" wherever he went. The plot of the operetta pivots on Dr. Falke's wish to get even with Eisenstein, chief perpetrator of the joke. The work is full of mistaken identities as all the participants show up at a ball, in disguise, and each reveals what he or she shouldn't to the wrong person.

The musical form known as an "overture" has a long history, explained in these pages on previous occasions, and I'm sure you have all kept your notes. This one is of the more recent "medly" type, giving us a sampling of all the tunes to come. The form is a sort of rondo, beginning and ending with the same theme, and with the other tunes alternating throughout.

  "Deh vieni non tardar" from Le Nozze di Figaro Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Le Nozze di Figaro (The Marriage of Figaro) is one of Mozart's most popular operas. It is based on infidelity, but the women remain steadfast, and it is only the men who are lecherous, so it didn't raise the indignation occasioned by his other opera on that topic, Così fan tutte, where the women are unfaithful ... sort of. But that's another story.

Figaro is the barber of Seville (subject of a later opera by Rossini, and still other operas by lesser composers), who is about to marry Susanna. They are both in the service of Count Almaviva, who demands his droit du seigneur, the old custom that allows the lord the right to spend the first night with the bride of any of his retainers. Neither Figaro nor Susanna is happy with this plan, nor is the Countess, who loves her husband in spite of his Zeus complex. In an effort to thwart the Count's plans, the women disguise themselves as each other, and through a series of plot twists, succeed in making fools out of all the men. They manage to trick the count into renouncing the droit du seigneur, whereupon there is a sigh of relief from the entire town.

Giunse alfin il momento... followed by the aria, Deh, vieni, non tardar....

Susanna, disguised as the Countess, realizes that Figaro is watching her, thinking that she is planning to "get it on" with the Count, and decides to taunt him, by singing of her passion for him without actually naming him. He thinks she is singing of the Count, when she is in fact singing of him.

Come now, my darling, no more delaying,
Come and answer the call of love.
Before heaven's torch shines bright in the sky,
While the night is still dark and the world at rest.

Here the brook is babbling, and the breezes are playing,
and their sweet sounds refresh my heart.

Here the flowers are laughing, and the grass is cool:
Here everything welcomees the pleasures of love.

Come now, my dear one: and among these sheltered trees
I'll crown your brow with roses.

  "O mio babbino caro" from Gianni Schicchi Giacomo Puccini

Puccini was one of the most successful operatic composers in history. Almost all of his operas were popular. He was a typical romantic, in every sense of the word. His operas were infused with drama, and they took place almost anywhere but his native Italy: France, Spain, China, America, and Japan. Gianni Schicchi is an exception, being set in Florence.

Puccini loved la dolce vita, staying in the finest hotels, revelling in his adoration. He was basically a kind person, but was not above putting down the self-important. No-one was fonder of the great tenor Caruso than Caruso himself. On one occasion, when Caruso was dragging out his aria "Chi son? Chi son?" (Who am I?), Puccini called out, "Sei un imbecile!" (You're a fool!)

On another occasion, he was luxuriating in his hotel suite in pajamas when the desk clerk informed him that there was a young lady waiting to see him. He asked what she was like, and when informed that she was charming, had her shown up. He asked her to wait while he changed into something more formal. Upon returning, he found her standing stark naked! His immediate thought was that she was mad, and was about to ring for security, when he reflected that it could be dangerous to oppose the will of a lunatic, and he decided that it was better not to do so.

Gianni Schicchi was the third of a trio of one-act operas known collectively as Il Trittico. They were called Il Tabarro, Suor Angelica, and Gianni Schicchi, and they represented different genres: tragedy, sentiment, and comedy, respectively. They were first performed at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 1918.

Gianni Schicchi may have been a real person. He is excoriated by Dante in the 30th Canto of his Inferno, where he is condemned to the eighth circle, along with thieves and swindlers.

The action takes place in Florence, in the year 1299. Buoso Donati has just died, and his presumptive heirs have uncovered a will leaving everything to a monastery. They are in despair until it occurs to one of them to send for the renowned mimic, Gianni Schicchi, who helps them hatch a scheme to bypass the will. He sends for a notary, poses as the "dying" Donati, and dictates a new will, benefitting not only the family, but himself, as well. The family is outraged, but cannot denounce him without losing their own inheritance.

One of the young Donatis had been scheduled to marry Schicchi's daughter, but upon learning that they would not inherit, they call off the wedding since the daughter, Lauretta, comes without a dowry. Schicchi's scheme provides them with an inheritance, and his daughter with the house, and the two presumbaly live happily ever after.

In this aria, Lauretta is pining over her lover, pleading with her father to let them marry, and threatening suicide if she is prevented.

Oh, dear daddy, I like him, he's so handsome;
I want to go to Porta Rossa to buy the ring!
Yes, yes, I do want to go! And if I were to love him in vain,
I'd go to the Ponte Vecchio and throw myself in the Arno!
I fret and suffer torments! Oh, God, I wish I could die!
Daddy, have pity, have pity!

  Flute Concerto in G Major, K. 313 -- Mvt. 1 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart's father, Leopold, was always after him to earn some money. He sent the young man to Munich and Augsburg seeking commissions. When Mozart had no luck at those places, he made off for Mannheim, which had a superb orchestra, and where the musical "market" was better. At Mannheim he succeeded in getting a commission from a wealthy Dutch amateur named De Jean for "three short simple concertos and a couple of quartets for the flute."

Mozart liked the money, and he loved the city, but he had no love for the flute. He dragged out his stay in Mannheim because he had more interesting things in mind than writing for an instrument he said he could not bear, and for a patron whom he did not respect. He had fallen in love. The object of his affection was a young singer, Aloysia Weber. He hoped to stay in Mannheim on the money he would get from De Jean, and then travel with his new love, her sister, and her father. His father, back in Salzburg, was furious -- but Mozart was at least earning money.

De Jean never received all the music he had commissioned. Mozart gave him two concertos instead of three, and only the first (the allegro movement of which we hear today) was written especially for De Jean. The second concerto appears to have been a reworking of an oboe concerto written earlier. There exists a short work, Andante in C Major, K. 315 which Mozart perhaps wrote to replace the second movement of the Concerto in G, because De Jean deemed it too difficult. But this is merely conjecture. There is also a Concerto for Flute and Harp which Mozart composed later, in Paris. These few works represent the total output of music featuring the flute. Many have commented on the beauty of these pieces, and have wondered if Mozart was just exaggerating when he claimed to dislike the instrument. It is obvious to me that if he secretly loved the flute, he would have written more music for it. Why he wrote so well for an instrument he disliked can be explained by a letter he wrote his father.

I don't have a single quiet hour here. I can write only at night... Of course I could scribble all day long; but these things will be known in the world, and so I must see to it that I don't have to be ashamed of them if they carry my name. Besides, you know that when I have to write continuously for one instrument (that I cannot stand) I stiffen up!

  Gershwin in Hollywood George Gershwin
(arr. R.R. Bennett)

Of those American composers who have tried to bridge the gap between popular and serious music, George Gershwin is the most successful. Among the critics, opinions still differ, but if popularity and lasting power are any measure of success, Gershwin made it.

Gershwin had always had a broad interest in music. He liked all kinds, but aspired to be a grea popular-song writer. At the age of fourteen, he began serious musical study with Charles Hambitzer, who introduced him to the piano literature from Bach and Beethoven to Debussy and Ravel. Chopin and Liszt also impressed him. When he was seventeen, he began the study of harmony, theory, and orchestraion with Edward Kilenyi. In the same year Al Jolson made his song Swanee a smash hit, Gershwin wrote a string quartet with a touch of the blues. Even after he became a successful Broadway composer, he continued to study music. For nearly two years, he studied counterpoint with Henry Cowell. In a letter to his brother (and lyricist) Ira, he wrote, "I maintain that a composer needs to understand all the intricacies of counterpoint and orchestration, and be able to create new forms for each advance in his work."

Until his death in 1937, Gershwin continued to study composition, his last instructor being Joseph Schillinger. Apart from some youthful chamber pieces, his first foray into the "serious" world was his Rhapsody in Blue, written at the request of Paul Whiteman for a concert called "Experiment in Modern Music." It was scored for piano and jazz band, but Whiteman wanted it to be more symphonic, so it was re-orchestrated by Ferde Grofé. AFter a successful premiere, Grofé changed the orchestration several times. Efforts to reconstruct the original version for jazz band have not borne fruit.

In 1925, a year after the Rhapsody in Blue, a new "classical" work was performed: the Concerto in F for piano and orchestra, with orchestration by Gershwin. The piece was commissioned by Walter Damrosch, conductor of the New York Symphony, who explained at the premiere that Gershwin had taken jazz, and dressed it up "in the classic garb of a concerto" in order to make it more presentable to concert audiences. Others think he wrote a conventional piano concerto using a few jazz elements. Whatever the case, and against critical predictions, the Concerto in F for piano and orchestra continues in the repertoire.

As a "serious" composer, Gershwin scored his greatest triumph with his opera Porgy and Bess, which has the distinction of being the only American opera ever performed at the famous Teatro alla Scala di Milano.

The sonts we hear today are from his Tin Pan Alley works intended for Hollywood (with the exception of Love Is Here to Stay from his orchestral tone poem An American in Paris). They are orchestrated by Robert Russell Bennett.

Back Bay Polka (The Shocking Miss Pilgrim)
A Foggy Day (A Damsel in Distress)
Slap That Bass (Shall We Dance)
Love Walked In (The Goldwyn Follies)
Nice Work If YOu Can Get It (A Damsel in Distress)
One, Two, Three (The Shocking Miss Pilgrim)
Love Is Here to Stay (An American in Paris)
They Can't Take That Away from Me (The Barkleys of Broadway)

  English Folk Song Suite Ralph Vaughan Williams
(orch. Gordon Jacob)

Yes, his last name is Vaughan Williams, not Williams. And, yes, his first name is pronounced Rafe, which is the most common way of pronouncing Ralph in Britain. Vaughan Williams was one of the first "nationalist" composers of Britain. He was educated in the classical manner, which at that time meant the Teutonic manner. He studied with Max Bruch, and was initially attracted to Wagner. Near the turn of the century, he began to collect folk music, and he and his friend Gustav Holst prompted a return to English roots. Besides his interest in folk music, he was fascinated by Tudor church music. He is considered England's greatest symphonist (he wrote nine), but was also prolific in other genres.

He was eclectic at a time when eclecticism was unfashionable. He believed in what one might call "natural originality." He was willing to break the rules, but he strongly believed in knowing those rules first. He expressed great confidence in the ability of America to produce great music from its own roots. Here, a quotation from a lecture given at Yale University in 1954 is appropriate (although it reminds us of the New Yorker's "Block-that-metaphor" items).

All young composers long to be individual and are inclined to defy the tradition in which they were brought up. This is right and proper, but when they plunge into unknown waters, let them hold fast to the life-line of their own national tradition; otherwise the siren voices from foreign shores will lure them to destruction. Musical invention has been described as an individual flowering on a commen stem. Now, young composers, do not try to be original; originality will come of itself if it is there. However individual your flowering may be, unless it is firmly grafted on the common stem, it will wither and die. I have all honour for those adventurous spirits who explore unknown regions; I cannot always follow them, but I admire their courage. Sometimes, however, I ask myself whether those composers have not even more courage who find new and unheard-of beauties along the beaten track. Try the beaten track first; if an irresistable impulse leads you into the jungle, be sure that you know the way back.

In addition to his interest in folk music, he and Holst were interested in young performers and they both wrote music for amateur players. Such is the case with the English Folk Song Suite, which was commissioned by the Royal Military School of Music. Originally for military band, it was re-orchestrated for the version we hear today, by the English composer and conductor, Gordon Jacob.

The suite is in three movements, fast, slow, fast, and each movement contains several folk songs, sometime played contrapuntally. The first movement includes Dives and Lazarus, Pretty Caroline, and Seventeen Come Sunday, in a rondo form. The second movement, Intermezzo, includes My Bonnie Boy and Green Rushes. The third movement is a collection of songs from the county of Somerset, including Blow away the Morning Dew, High Germany, The Trees So High, and John Barleycorn.

  "O zittre nicht" from Die Zauberflöte Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) was one of Mozart's last works; he died scarcely two months after its premiere. The work is remarkable for its unity in spite of the disparity of its parts. Mozart brings together elements of Singspiel, opera seria, and even Lutheran hymn-prelude. The music is solemn, comic, romantic, religious, and slap-stick. It has colorature passages, strophic, folksong-like arias, choruses, accompanied recitatives, motives which reappear at appropriate moments throughout the work, and even an overture in sonata form with contrapuntal elements.

The story is that of a pure youth who must undergo trials of a mysterious nature before he is united with the ideal woman. He is accompanied on his journey by a Sancho-Panza-like character who provides comic relief, and in turn, is rewarded with a charming mate. It is amazing that all this could be woven into a convincing whole ... especially when it had to carry the burden of freemason symbolism. (The number 3 has special significance to the Masons, and it appears often in the opera: the three ladies of the Queen of the Night, the three slaves, the three priests, the three boys, and especially, the three flats of the key of E-flat major.)

The hero, Tamino, is presented with a portrait of Pamina, the beautiful daughter of the Queen of the Night. He falls instantly in love with her. After a clap of thunder, the Queen herself appears, and, in the aria O zitt're nicht, mein lieber Sohn! asks Tamino to rescue her daughter from the "evil" Sarastro, who has carried her away.

O tremble not, fear not, my son,
For thou art pure, wise, innocent.
Perchance a youth like thee at long last may
To my poor mother's heart some comfort lay.
Fate hath decreed me doomed to suffer,
My only child is lost to me;
In her my joy is gone forever,
An evil fiend reft her from me.
I still see her tremble
In anguish and terror;
How shrinking in loathing
'Gainst hear she is striving.
I looked on helpless as they stole her;
"Ah, help!" was all the word she spake;
But yet in vain was all her pleading,
My help, my succour were too weak.
So shalt thou go to bring her freedom,
Thou shalt my daughter's saviour be;
And when I see thee here the victor
I for thine oen will give her thee.

It turns out tha Sarastro is not evil; he has saved Pamina from her mother in order for her to marry Tamino after he has passed all the trials, and has been purified.

  Selections from Kiss Me Kate Cole Porter
(arr. R.R. Bennett)

As mosty of you know, Cole Porter was born in Peru, Indiana. His family was wealthy, and he suffered none of the financial worries which plagued his contemporary Irving Berlin. While Berlin was largely self-taught, Porter graduated from Yale, studied music at Harvard, and travelled to Paris where he studied at the Schola Cantorum, under the French composer Vincent D'Indy. Porter was a sophisticated bon vivant, who, in his music, thumbed his nose at authority, delighted in double entendre, and used downright risqué lyrics, which he wrote himself. The musicologist Cecil Smith referred to Porter as "the genteel pornographer" of musical comedy.

In Kiss Me Kate, he reduced Shakespeare to the level of pop entertainment, bringing it down from the cultural pedestal it has been on for ages. Shakespeare would probably applaud. In a very amusing piece not heard in today's concert, Brush up Your Shakespeare, Porter's lyrics suggest (without using) words not at that time heard on the New York stage. In another piece, which we will hear, Wunderbar, he expresses his superiority to his characters when he has them sing, "Gazing down from the Jungfrau, from our secret chalet for two...." Of course this is a parody. They are reprising their work in a previous musical which took place in Switzerland. His characters are sophisticated enough to have heard of the Jungfrau, but not sophisticated enough to know that there could be no chalet from which one could "look down" upon it!

The selections we will hear today are:

Why can't you behave?
Another openin' another show
Always true to you in my fashion
Were thine that special face
I sing of love
So in love


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

Linda Kanzawa Ard, Concertmaster
Rosemary Manifold *
Matt Baker +^
Martha Barker
Joyce Dubach
Sherry Gajewski
Amy Grush
Matt Hendryx +
Greg Kroeker
Sandra Neel
Ilona Orban
Moo Il Rhee

Naida MacDermid *
Peter Collins
Bill Klickman
Tim O'Neil

Earl Perez *
Nicholas J.S. Bond
Samuel Carnes
Kelly Marquis
Preston Thomas +^

Randy Gratz *
Darrel Fiene

Madalyn Metzger +^

Kathy Urbani *
Barb Pyrah

Rita Kimberley *
George Donner

English Horn
George Donner
Lila D. Hammer *
Jane Grandstaff

Bass Clarinet
Kris Bachman

Erich Zummack *
Donna Russell

Nancy A. Bremer *
Bryan Gibson
Jennifer J. Double +^
Scott Stephen

Steven Hammer *
Scott D. Steenburg +^
Shawn Sollenberger +^

Larry Dockter *
Jon Hartman * (asst.)
Jeremy Dawkins +^

William DeWitt

Mark Sternberg +

David Mendenhall
David Robbins
Jenni Moore +

Allison Perkins

Debora DeWitt

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient
Racael Goerge, Madalyn Metzger, Jennifer DoubleRachael George is a senior at Manchester College and will graduate in May with a major in music education. She is from Winchester, Indiana, and attended Winchester Community High School.

She has been a member of A Cappella Choir, Entertainers, Choral Society, and Concert Band. During her career at Manchester she was awarded the Clyde W. Holsinger Scholarship, the Oda and Daniel W. Boyer Scholarship, and the Howard M. and V. Anne Garver Scholarship. Rachel studies voice with Prof. Bradley Creswell and recently performed a highly successful senior recital.

Rachael plans to pursue a career in music education as a choral director, and also intends to explore music composition. Her parents are Paul and Charlene George.

Madalyn Metzger is a sophomore at Manchester College with a major in communication studies and a minor in music.

She graduated from Glenwood High School in Catham, Illinois, where she was named Outstanding Drum Major and winner of the John Philip Sousa Award. She was also selected for the Illinois Music Educators Association All-State Honor Band. During high school she studied flute with Debbie Eddy.

At Manchester, Madalyn has been a member of the Concert Band, Symphony Orchestra, A Cappella Choir, Entertainers and Choral Society. She was the recipient of the naomi Royer Will Memorial Scholarship and Manchester Symphony Orchestra Scholarship. She studies flute with Robert Jones.

Madalyn's parents are Dennis and Van Metzger.
Jennifer Double, a senior at Manchester College, is majoring in biology-chemistry and minoring in psychology.

She is from Berne, Indiana, and graduated from South Adams High School where she received the Outstanding Achievement Award in choir and Arion Music Award for outstanding achievement in Band and Choir. She was selected for the Indiana All-State Women's Choir, and the Tri-State Honors Choir and Band.

Jennifer's music experience at Manchester College includes A Cappella Choir, Entertainers, Brass Quintet, and Symphony Orchestra. On two occasions she was soloist with the M.C. Jazz Ensemble, and was featured in the Rodgers and Hart Musical Review in 1995. She is a 4-year recipient of a Manchester Symphony Orchestra Scholarship.

She studied voice with Beverly Umpleby during high school and with Jerry Yonkman, Bradley Creswell, and John Planer at Manchester College.

After graduation in May, Jennifer plans to audition for a traveling musical missions group called "The Celebrant Singers," and also pursue a graduate degree in Counseling, Social Work, or Choral Conducting. Jennifer's parents are Jerry and Debbie Double.