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Concert Program Cover

Second Concert of the 53rd Season

Mozart Bicentennial Commemoration

Sunday, December 8th, 1991
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Exsultate, jubilate, K. 165 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  

Allegro: Exsultate, jubilate...
Recitativo: Fulget, amica dies...
Larghetto: Tu virginum corona...
Allegro non troppo: Alleluja

  Janie L. Hornung, soprano  
  Requiem, K.626 (Süssmayr completion) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  

Introit et Kyrie
Agnus Dei

  Manchester Choral Society
John Yonkman, conductor

Janie L. Hornung, soprano
Sarah Firbley Reynolds, alto
Fritz Robertson, tenor
Doyle C. Preheim, bass

Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Exultate, Jubilate, K. 165
(Composed in Milan in January, 1773)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Revisionsists point out that the popular conception of Mozart as a very rapid composer is based on ignorance of the fact that, unlike many others, he composed not at the keyboard, but in his head. It was not easy to know when he was composing, since he could do that (as he often did) while playing billiards, or drawing pictures (he was a talented artist, according to his wife, Constanze). One instance serves to illustrate this.

Legend has it that he wrote the overture to Don Giovanni the night before its first performance, while Constanze kept him awake by telling him stories. Research suggests that it was before the second rehearsal, but still, he wrote it in one night. This was possible because he had already composed the piece, and had only to write it down when the time came. He often wrote music while carrying on conversations.

Even with this demystification of his genius, it is apparent that Mozart was a rapid composer, simply on the basis of his enormous output during his short life.

Regarding many of his works, we can find a good deal of commentary among his letters. But in the case of the Exultate, Jubilate we find little more than an off-hand remark in a letter to his sister, that he was writing a motet "which must be ready tomorrow." It was written to be sung by a man, Venanzio Rauzzine, according to the biographer W.J. Turner, but it is known as being for soprano, orchestra, and organ. Mozart wrote it in Milan, when he was sixteen years old.

  Requiem in D Minor, K. 626
(Begun by Mozart in 1791 in Vienna
and completed by Franz Xaver Süssmayr)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

The success of the film "Amadeus" left viewers with a wealth of information about Mozart's personality and music, some of which is true. He was a child prodigy (true), had a vulgar sense of humor (no more than was common in his circle), had a foolish giggle (no evidence for that), thought highly of his own genius (true), was poisoned by Salieri (false), did not finish his last work, the Requiem (true), while on his death-bed dictated parts of the Requiem to Salieri (false), and was secretly commissioned by Salieri to write the Requiem so that he (Salieri) could claim it as his own (false).

Mozart did write the Requiem on a secret commission, but not from Salieri, his chief rival. His patron was Count Franz van Walsegg, who frequently commissioned works which he copied and presented as his own at soireés on his estate. Members of his court indulged what they considered a harmless deception, and humored him by pretending to think he had written them.

The commission, coming as it did through a mysterious intermediary, and at a time when Mozart was exhausted and melancholy, contributed to the obsession that there was a supernatural aspect to it ... that it was to be Mozart's own dirge. His friends and relatives were unable to snap him out of this dolor, and the day before his death, when they were all singing those parts which had been sketched out, Mozart broke down and wept.

How much of the Requiem is actually by Mozart is still being debated. From the Sanctus on to the end, all is new music, except for judicious repeats of themes from the beginning. Probably none of the orchestration is Mozart's, except indirectly. While Mozart dictated nothing to Salieri, he did dictate to his friend and student Franz Süssmayr, and it was Süssmayr, very familiar with Mozart's thought process, who completed the version we hear today.

Recorded versions vary, since several composers have made attempts to rethink the probabilities. The organ, often heard in other performances, is omitted here (it had always appeared more because of Viennese tradition than artistic judgement). The basset horns, with their mournful timbre, are too hard to find, and have been replaced by clarinets.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

Linda Kanzawa Hare, Concertmaster
Rosemary Manifold *
Stephanie Beery +^
Nelson Dougherty
Matthew Hendryx
Tracy A. Knechel +
Sandra Neel
Ilona Orban
Moo Il Rhee
Vernon Stinebaugh

Annete Hopkins *
Kate Burdey
Joyce Gouwens
Naida MacDermid

Joe Kalisman *
Jennifer Barnhart +
Betty Bueker
Joshua Stevenson
Lisa White +

Randy Gratz *
Darrel Fiene
George Scheerer

Lisa Kinsey *+^
Kathleen Andersen
Robyn Jones *
LeAnn Compton +

Donna Russell * (co-)
Takashi Yamano * (co-)

Nancy A. Bremer * (co-)
Bryan L. Gibson * (co-)

Steven Hammer *
Mike Jordan

D. Larry Dockter *
Jon Hartman +
Scott Hippensteel

Tana Tinkey

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient

Manchester Choral Society

  John Yonkman, conductor  
Christine Beery
Heather L. Bungard
Carolyn Carr
Lori Gaerte
Beth Hartley
Holly Hoese
Kimberly Koczan
Barbara Leininger
Rosetta Litke
Jamie Little
Deanna Beth Myers
Carlotta Olinger
Betsy Peterson
Jana Ralston
Heidi Rupley
Carol Streator
Sara Sunderman
Jennifer Wade
Krista Walker
Jane Willmert

Reginald Batusic
James Bowyer
William DeWitt
Jeffery Jones
Howard McKee
Kazuhiro Momiyama
Andy Ulrich
Carmen Beery
Karin Brunk
Justine Bucholz
Elaine A. Campbell
Ruth Craig
Carla Croy
Jennifer Flory
Wendy Good
Edith Hoffer
Kristen Horwath
Monica Lange
Marcie Moller
Kim Murray
Wray Nye
Tina Rieman
Tanya Roop
Tameche Shock
Rebecca Simmons
Connie Snyder
Heidi Starr
Katherine Tinsley
Stacey Willbur
Lisa White

Eric Barkey
Robert Dickason
Dwight Farringer
Francis Hoffer
Shawn Kirchner
Geoff Markiton
Chris Power
Ken Rieman
Jon Schrock
Dan Smith
Duane Wolfe
John Jerry Yonkman, in his first year as Director of Choral Activities at Manchester College, is a native of Chicago. He studied voice at the American Conservatory of Music in Chicago with Donna Harrison and received the Bachelor of Arts degree in music theory and composition from Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

He began his conducting career in 1976 with his appointment as conductor of the Calvin College Chamber Singers. In 1977 he moved to San Francisco to continue his vocal and conducting studies before beginning graduate work at Indiana University, where he received the Master and Doctor of Music degrees in choral conducting. Besides conducting numerous choral groups at Indiana University, Mr. Yonkman was conductor and music director of the Bloomington Chamber Singers from 1983-1988. He has appeared as guest conductor of the Bloomington Symphony Orchestra, and, with the Bach Chorale Singers, as guest conductor of the Lafayette Symphony Orchestra.

He has also served on the faculties of Denison University and the University of Indianapolis, and is currently in his fourth season as Music Director of the Bach Chorale Singers in Lafayette, Indiana.
Janie L. HornungJanie L. Hornung received the Bachelor of Music Education degree from Indiana University in 1970 and the Master of Music in Voice from Ball STate University in 1976. She studied voice at Indiana University with Virginia MacWatters. She has continued her study of voice/vocal pedagogy at classes and workshops at the University of Iowa, St. Cloud State University, St John's University, and Akron University.

She taught one year in the Attica Consolidated Schools and will be completing her twentieth year in the Logansport Community School corporation this spring. She has taught at all levels of vocal and general music, concentrating on elementary general music and high school choral music the last fifteen years.

Ms. Hornung has performed as guest soloist with both the Indianapolis Symphony Orchestra and Ft. Wayne Philharmonic in opera arias, with the Marion Philharmoni in Haydn's Creation, with the Indiana University-Kokomo Orchestra in Haydn's Lord Nelson Mass, with the Manchester Symphony Orchestra in Poulenc's Gloria, and with the Lafayette Symphony Orchestra in Vaughan Williams' Antartica Symphony No. 7.

Miss Hornung is a member of the American Choral Directors Association, Sigma Alpha Iota and Delta Kappa Gamma.
Sarah Fribley ReynoldsSarah Fribley Reynolds currently studies voice privately with Violette Vernaud Meyers. She studied voice on scholarship at Indiana University School of Music in Bloomington and in Fort Wayne. Ms. Reynolds was recipient of the Ruth Palmer Music Scholarship and she was the winner of the vocal division of the Federation of Women's Clubs' Music Competition for the State of Indiana. She is also an active member of Sigma Eta, Fine Arts, Incorporated.

Ms. Reynolds has performed in operas on the I.U. bloomington campus, participated in Fort Wayne Opera Workshop, toured Europe with the "Sounds of Hope" Choir as soloist and choir member, and is a member of the Fort Wayne Philharmonic Chorus and "Opus 18" chamber ensemble. She performs as alto soloist throughout the state of Indiana for various organizations. She has appeared most recently as soloist with the Fort Wayne Philharmonic, Huntington Nativity Festival, Auburn Oratorio Chorus, "Opus 18" Chamber Ensemble, and Concordia Theological Seminary.
Fritz RobertsonFritz Robertson maintains a busy schedule as a performer and teacher. A Maine native, he received his undergraduate education there, and pursued graduate studies at Boston University where he held assistantships in Opera and Choral Conducting, and received the faculty-nominated Honor Award in Voice. During his years in Boston, Mr. Robertson was tenor soloist at All Saints Parish of Brookline, was a member of the Handel & Haydn Society professional chorus, and an active free-lance musician. In the summer of 1984, he received one of twelve vocal fellowships for intense study with world-renowned soprano Phyllis Curtin at Tanglewood, the summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra. From 1987-1990, while pursuing a Doctorate at Ball State University, Mr. Robertson was the recipient of three Doctoral Teaching Fellowships, and a three-time winner of that institution's Outstanding Graduate Student Award.

As a guest artist, Mr. Robertson has been heard in recital at Emerson College, Boston University, All Newton Music School, Ball State University and St. Mary's College of Raleigh, NC. He has performed extensively in the Greater Boston area as soloist with the Handel & Haydn Society, the Boston Cecelia, the John Oliver Chorale, Masterworks Chorale and the Neponset Choral Society. In Indiana, Mr. Robertson has been a featured soloist with the symphony orchestras of Muncie, Marion and Anderson, and has appeared in recital at Anderson University and on the Emily Kimbrough Chamber Series in Muncie. Performances elsewhere have included those with the Lake Placid Sinfoniette, the Bangor (ME) Symphony Orchestra, and in our nation's capitol with the Masterworks Chorus & Orchestra and the National Chamber Orchestra.

Mr. Robertson is currently music director at Friends Memorial Church of Muncie, and is an Assistant Professor fo Music at Anderson University, where he teaches voice, opera theater and directs the women's choir.
Doyle C. PreheimDoyle C. Preheim is professor of music and chairman of the music department at  Goshen College. Since joining the Goshen College faculty in 1972, he has been director of the Chamber Choir, taught voice, conducting, music history, and church music.

Dr. Preheim is a native of Freeman, South Dakota. He received the B.A. degree in music education from Bethel College, Newton, Kansas. The M.M. in church music and the D.M.A. in choral music were earned at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles.

Dr. Preheim appears frequently as guest conductor of choral festivals, and as baritone soloist in oratorio roles. He and his wife, Mary Jo, have presented recitals throughout the midwest.