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Concert Program Cover

Third Concert of the 47th Season

Student Soloists

Sunday, March 9th, 1986
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Prologue and Dance Robert Washburn  
  Concerto for Trumpet in E-flat Major Johann Hummel  

I. Allegro con spirito

  Jeff West, trumpet  
  Horn Concerto No. 3 in E-flat Major, K. 447 W.A. Mozart  

II. Romanze
III. Allegro

  Eric Jones, horn  
  Concertino for Trumpet Joseph Kaminski  

I. Un poco Vivaldi

  Douglas McKee, trumpet
Julie Baxter, accompanist
  Trumpet Concerto in E-flat Major Franz Joseph Haydn  

II. Andante
III. Allegro

  Ray Goelz, trumpet  
  Carmen Suite No. 1 Georges Bizet  

Prelude - Aragonaise
Les dragons d'Alcala
Les Toréadors


Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Prologue and Dance Robert Washburn
(b. 1928)

Robert Washburn was born at Bouckville, New York, in 1928. He studied composition with Bernard Rogers, Darius Milhaud, and Nadia Boulanger, and earned his Doctorate at the Eastman School of Music. His music is quite accessible, being moderately dissonant at times, but generally rhythmic, and with clearly defined themes.

Prologue and Dance was commissioned by the Kansas City Youth Symphony.

Prologue and Dance, as the title suggests, is structured in two contrasting sections. The first is slow, marked Maestoso, and opens with a dramatic drum roll, followed by thematic statements first in the trumpets and then in the French horns. String and woodwind color is then added, followed by a plaintive flute solo. The close of the Prologue section recalls the trumpet and horn themes of the opening, but this time soft and muted.

The dance section follows without pause, and a rhythmic motive basic to the entire section is stated immediately by the snare drum in 7/8 meter. The use of ostinato patterns, hemiola rhythmic figures, and contrasting timbres are important features of the Dance section.

  Trumpet Concerto in E-flat Major
(First Movement)
Johann Nepomuk Hummer

Hummel is a name scarcely known today, yet, in his own time, he was quite renowned. He was a child prodigy, who toured the Continent at the age of nine. He had beena student of Mozart's and for two years lived at the Mozart home in Vienna. Later he studied with Salieri. He was a friend of Beethoven, and was proud to have been tipped by Haydn after a London performance of a Haydn sonata. In fact, after Haydn's retirement, Hummel took his place as director of the orchestra of Prince Esterhazy. One of his better-known students was Czerny.

From the clues so far dropped, astute readers will have placed Hummerl correctly among the transitional figures, bridging Classicism and Romanticism. The Trumpet concerto is a perfect example of this transition. The first movement is in the classic sonata-allegro form. The last two movements (which we are not to hear today) are more Romantic in character.

  Horn Concerto No. 3 in E-flat Major, K. 447
(Second and Third Movements)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Mozart wrote the 3rd Concerto for Horn in 1783, in Vienna. This was a particularly productive time for him, in spite of the fact that he had to take time away from composing to allow for the many keyboard performances for which he was so much in demand. Since there was no copyright law in those days, he earned little from his compositions, since they were freely pirated, and he was forced to make ends meet by relying on his great popularity as a performer.

If it weren't for the fact that he dated the manuscripts 1783, we might imagine the work was written later. It is much less flashy than the other horn concerti, and has a particularly mellow quality.

  Concertino for Trumpet
(First Movement)
Joseph Kaminski
(b. 1903)

Joseph Kaminski was born in 1903, at Odessa, in the Ukraine. He has lived in Tel Aviv since 1937. Kaminski was a violinist and composer, who produced works for orchestra, chamber ensembles, and for solo instruments such as the violin, piano, and trumpet.

He is not a well-known composer, perhaps because he took a light-hearted attitude to music. He titled the first movement of his Concertino "Un poco Vivaldi" (a little Vivaldi) because he took the theme from what he considers to be the most hackneyed of Vivaldi's violin concerti. His irreverence is akin to that of our own Don Gillis (The January February March, Overture to an Unwritten Opera, and Symphony No. 5 1/2). Perhaps history does not smile on humorists!

We hear this work in a piano transcription written by the composer himself.

  Trumpet Concerto in E-flat Major
(Second and Third Movements)
Franz Josef Haydn

Haydn is correctly considered a Classical composer, having developed the sonata-allegro form to the fullest. However, there are many touches of Sturm und Drang in his symphonies, strong hints of what later became known as Romanticism. This trumpet concerto has touches, especially in the latter movements, of the chromaticism usually associated with Romanticism. Haydn wrote this concerto for a new invention, the keyed trumpet, which allowed him greater melodic freedom. The instrument can respond to the direction taken by the orchestra regardless of the key.

The trumpet was designed with holes along the tubing, which were stopped by saxophone-like pads. This permitted much more virtuoso playing. The instrument is not used today, because the tone was somewhat damaged by the perforations, and the invention of the valved trumpet accomplished the same ends without the undesireable side-effects.

Some find premonitions of Schubert in the second movement.

  Carmen Suite No. 1 Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet was born in Paris, and died there at the age of thirty-seven. He is often cited as an example of the misunderstood genius driven to an early grave by an indifferent or hostile public, his death being attributed to the "failure" of Carmen. Actually, although the opera received some adverse criticism for the "indelicacy" of its subject, it met with fair success at the box office, being performed some thirty-three times in the two-month period between its premiere and the death of Bizet from a ruptured artery. Carmen came to be the most often performed opera in the world, and between 1983 and 1985 has inspired no fewer than three screen versions.

The Suite we hear today consists of six selections from the opera. Four of them are from orchestral preludes or entr'actes, and two are orchestrations of arias from Acts I and II.

Prélude -- The menace of the events to follow is quickly established by the sustained, nervous twitching of the strings, over which is superimposed an almost Wagnerian brass theme in a minor key. This is punctuated by an occasional double thump from the plucked basses.

Aragonaise (Entr'acte from Act IV) -- This piece is based on a dance from the Spanish province of Aragon, and is the most characteristically "Spanish" of all the pieces, with its use of castanets and tambourines.

Intermezzo (Entr'acte from Act III) -- This is a slow piece, almost a Barcarole, featuring woodwinds and strings, opening with the flute supported by harp.

Seguidilla -- This is one of the two pieces adapted from an aria, in this case, Carmen's from the first act. Carmen, a flirtatious gypsy, has set her cap for Don José, a corporal in the guard, who, at first, ignores her. She tosses him a cassia flower, intended to put a spell over him. It apparently succeeds, since shortly after, when she is arrested for stabbing a fellow worker in the cigar factory, he carelessly allows her to escape. This aria is sung immediately prior to the escape, and it is a teasing invitation to anyone to become her lover, and to meet her later at the café of Lillas Pastia, near the city walls. But it is slyly directed toward Don José.

Les Dragons d'Alcalá (Entr'acte from Act II) -- This piece has the rhythm associated with a military drum-beat. It formed the orchestral introduction to the second act, and mimics the marching steps of the Dragoons, or troops of the King.

Les Toréadors -- This selection is the second orchestral adaptation of an aria, this time, the matador Escamillo's from Act II. No sooner has Carmen ensnared José, than she sees the matador Escamillo. In this aria, he tries to interest her, but appears to fail. It is not too long, however, before Carmen ruins José, then takes up with Escamillo, provoking the despondent José to stab her to death. In this aria, Escamillo sings of the similarity of matadors to soldiers, sings prophetically of danger, and mentions the two dark eyes upon them.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

Ervin Orban, Concertmaster
Rosemary Manifold *
Dessie Arnold
Mary Berkebile
Ruth Berkebile
Anne Boebel
Carolyn Caldwell
Linda Hare
Jonathan Hess +^
Vernon Stinebaugh
Teresa Worman

Annette Martin *
Peter Collins
Naida Walker

Joellen Placeway *
Elizabeth Bueker
Valerie Goetz Boud
Janice Ritchie +

Christopher Bowser *
Calvin Bisha
Bradley Kuhns

Nancy Bloom +^

Kathy Urbani *
Nancy Bloom +^

Stephanie Jones *
Susan Turnquist

English Horn
Susan Turnquist
Riley Greider *
Jane Grandstaff

Takashi Yamano *
Vickie Ball

Eric Jones *+
G. Kent Teeters
Brenda Willoughby +^
Lisa Nelsen

Steven Hammer * (co-)
Ray Goelz *+ (co-)
Jeff West +

David Schultz *+^
D. Larry Dockter
Jeff Secor

John Beery

Dale Largent +

Tom Littlefield *+
Tana Tinkey +
Terry McKee

Nancy Morse

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient
Jeff West is a graduate of Lakeland High School in LaGrange County, and is  junior music education major at Manchester College. He is a member and president of A Cappella Choir, Concert Band, Jazz Ensemble, and the Manchester Symphony Orchestra. He has studied trumpet with Joseph Ferraro and John Beery. After graduation from Manchester, Jeff intends to do graduate study in music. Jeff's parents are Jerry and Julie West of Wolcottville.
Eric Jones is a senior at Manchester High School where he is a member of teh Marching and Concert Bands. He has received Superior ratings at the Indiana State Solo and Ensemble Contest for the past four years. In 1984 he was chosen for the Indiana All-State Honor Band, and in 1985 was selected for the Indiana All-State Orcheestra. He has studied French horn with Michael Wells, former principal hornist with the Fort Wayne Philharmonic. Eric's parents are Robert and Stephanie Jones of North Manchester.
Douglas McKee is a junior at Manchester High School and is a member of the Marching and Concert Bands. In 1984 and 1986 he was first chair trumpet in the Wabash County Honors Band, and in 1983 was first chair trumpet in the top Concert Band at the Purdue Band Camp. For the past three years he has received Superior ratings at the Indiana State Solo and Ensemble Contest. He currently studies privately with Dr. Charles Gorham, trumpet professor at Indiana University. Doug's parents are Terry and Pam KcKee of North Manchester.
Ray Goelz, a senior music education major, is from Hoagland, Indiana, and is a 1981 graduate of Heritage High School. He has been a member of the Manchester Symphony Orchestra for three years and has participated in Concert Band, Jazz Band, A Cappella Choir and Entertainers. While at Manchester College he has studied trumpet with Joseph Ferraro and John Beery. Ray will present his senior recital on Saturday, May 3 at 8:00 p.m. in Winger Recital Hall. Ray's parents are Herbert and Dorothy Goelz of Hoagland.