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Concert Program Cover

First Concert of the 46th Season

 

Sunday, November 4th, 1984
Cordier Auditorium
Robert Jones, Conductor

  Overture to Rosamunde, Op. 26, D. 664 Franz Schubert  
       
  An Orchestra Primer Theron Kirk  
  Cheree Dolby, narrator  
       
  Organ Concerto, Op. 4, No. 5 in F Major George Frederic Handel  
 

I. Larghetto
II. Allegro
III. Alla Siciliana
IV. Presto

   
  R. Gary Deavel, organ  
       
  Intermission  
       
  Organ Concerto for Organ and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 46, No. 2 Paul Hindemith  
 

Nicht zu schnell (Not too fast)
Sehr langsam und ganz ruhig (Very slow and peaceful)
Lebhaft (Lively)

 
  R. Gary Deavel, organ  
       
  Eight Russian Folk Songs, Op. 58 Anatol Liadov  
 

Chant religieux (Religious Chant)
Chant de Noel (Christmas Carol)
Complainte (Plaintive Song)
Chant comique (Humorous Song)
Légende des oiseaux (Legend of the Birds)
Berceuse (Cradle Song)
Ronde (Round Dance)
Choeur danse (Village Dance Song)

 
       

Program Notes by James R. C. Adams

  Overture to Rosamunde, Op. 26, D. 644 Franz Schubert
(1797-1828)
 
 

Schubert's incidental music to Rosamunde was a failure in his lifetime. It was played only three times: once in rehearsal, and twice for the play, which lasted for a "run" of two nights. In fact, the score was promptly lost, to be found many years later by Sir George Grove and Sir Arthur Sullivan (of Gilbert & Sullivan) on the floor of a closet in Vienna. It was through their efforts that the music finally found its large audience.

The Overture is the most popular of the suite known as "Incidental Music to Rosamunde," though, ironically, it does not figure among the eleven pieces Schubert wrote for that play. It was, in fact, written for another obscure play called Die Zauberharfe (The Magic Harp). Be that as it may, it is delightful music with many changes of mood, thoroughly theatrical, and easy to listen to.

It begins with fierce, brassy chords, and suddenly turns plaintive, as the woodwinds enter. This is quickly followed by a waltz-like episode, then a sweet string melody, and finally a return to the fierce sounds of the opening. This section ends with four pianissimo phrases followed by a fortissimo chord.

The mood again changes to a light, rapid melody dominated by the strings, before being taken up by the full orchestra. After a modulation, the woodwinds take it up and lead into a galloping theme with the violins echoed in the lower strings, backed by triple-tongued trumpets. The light melody in the strings returns, and climax, reminding one of a Saturday morning movie serial ("Will the Lone Eagle escape the clutches of the Night-Riders?". I mean no disrespect; the Finale of Rossini's William Tell did as much for the "Lone Ranger."

The music returns to a pastoral mood before galloping off again into the sunset.


 
       
  An Orchestra Primer Theron Kirk
(20th c.)
 
 

Theron Kirk is an American composer, currently Chairman of the Department of Music at San Antonio College in Texas. He has published works in a wide variety of forms, including choral and chamber music, operas and symphonies.

A number of composers have been attracted to the idea of a musical work designed to introduce the instruments of the orchestra to children. One of the most famous of such works is Benjamin Britten's A Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra. Another popular example is An Orchestra Primer, by Theron Kirk. In both works, the instruments are shown off one by one, and finally, together, in an example of a basic musical form. Benjamin Britten ended his work with a fugue, a form developed in the Baroque era. Kirk ends his with a sonata allegro, hallmark of the Classical period. The sonata allegro is the essential form of the classical symphony, the concerto, chamber music such as quartets and trios, and, of course, the sonata, itself. The first movement of all these is traditionally in the sonata allegro form, hency its choice by Kirk as an ideal way of showing off the orchestra.


 
       
  Organ Concerto Op. 4, No. 5, in F Major George Frederic Handel
(1685-1759)
 
 

Handel was an exact contemporary of Bach, born in the same year, and dying only nine years later than Bach. Both came from north German middle-class families, both were Protestants, and both took their religion seriously. However, while Bach remained a provincial, family man, Handel became a well-travelled man-of-the-world. His stay in Italy stamped his music with an Italiante quality notable in this work.

In his program notes for a Columbia recording of four of Handel's sixteen organ concertos, the noted organist E. Power Biggs says, "The composer's first set of organ concertos, Opus 4, were published by Walsh in 1738. Later, another set of six followed, designated as Opus 7. These are all original works (Italics, mine). While that may be true of most of these concerts, it is not true of the one we are to hear today, since it was published earlier, probably in 1731, as the Sonata in F, Op. 1, No. 11 for Recorder and Harpsichord, with the note that the performer could elect to use the oboe.

Interestingly, while Mr. Biggs describes the first movement as "elegant and somber," Stoddard Lincoln says that "Although [the work] follows the 'da chiesa' format, Handel favors the light textures and rhythms of the 'sonata da camera.' The first movement is peacefully lyric and lacks the tense seriousness usually associated with the church sonata." I leave it to you to decide whether the first movement is "elegand and somber," or "peacefully lyric."

The second, or "Allegro," movement is certainly gay. The structure is binary. The orchestra introduces the theme, but the organ is prominent throughout.

The third and fourth movements show a strong Italian influence. The third movement is in the form of an Italian dance, the Siciliana, and the fourth, Allegro, is a Gigue of unmistakable Corellian character.

In the C Major suite, the Ouverture is the longest single movement, and consists of three parts: Prelude, Fugue, and Coda, which develops some of the themes heard earlier. The impressive introduction contrasts nicely with the dances to follow. Throughout the Ouverture there is a playful alternation between the tutti and the three wind instruments. This is a characteristic of the Concerto Grosso, and explains the statement that a Baroque suite is an "embryonic concerto."

The Ouverture is followed by the Courante, a dance of aristocratic origin, in 3/2 time. Most of the dances appear in pairs, with the first one played again after the second, to form "book-ends." In this performance, the Gavottes, Forlane, and final Passepieds are omitted, and we hear only the Menuets and Bourrees.


 
       
  Concerto for Organ and Chamber Orchestra, Op. 46, No. 2 Paul Hindemith
(1895-1963)
 
 

Hindemith was born in Germany, and worked there until he ran afoul of Hitler as a result of his marrying a Jew, and his sympathy for Liberal causes. He came to the U.S. in 1937 at the invitation of Elizabeth Sprague Cooledge (for whom the auditorium in the Library of Congress is named). He eventually settled in the United States, where he taught first at the Berkshire Music Center, then at Yale, and finally, at Harvard.

He is thought by many to be the originator of the term Gebrauchsmusik. This literally means "music to be used." The group of composers who used the term were making the point that serious musicians had gotten out of touch with the general public. The music of the time was written to appeal to a small group of elite listeners with rather sophisticated tastes. Hindemith believed that the composer should not be some dreamer, waiting for the call of his muse, but a sober craftsman, able to turn out a work on order, as a cabinet-maker could.

Hindemith was also a "Neo-Classist," preferring the simple, almost mathematical structure of earlier composers. He also wished to reach a larger audience by writing for smaller orchestral forces... chamber orchestras, and sometimes small amateur groups.

Earlier music can be imitated in more than one way. There can be a return to earlier themes (Stravinsky's Pulcinella, Respighi's Ancient Airs and Dance), or a return to earlier form and structure, as is the case here.

The Concerto for Organ and Chamber Orchestra is written in three movements, with great stress on counterpoint. A careful listener will hear the several thematic threads running along linearly, as in a work by Bach. This might take several hearings (buy a record). The fundamental "Baroqueness" of the work may be masked by the contemporary-sounding rhythms, and the relative lack of tonal center.


 
       
  Eight Russian Folk Songs, Op. 58 Anatol Liadov
(1855-1914)
 
 

Anatol Liadov was born in St. Petersburg in 1855 and died there in 1914. He came from a long line of professional musicians, and was honored in his day, achieveing a professorship at the conservatory in St. Petersburg, where he had previously studied under Rimsky-Korsakov. He had the misfortune to follow in the wake of such giants as Tschaikovsky, Glinka, and Rimsky-Korsakov, and his work seems too imitative of others' for him to have received much acclaim.

Liadov was active in the collection of Russian folk music, and thus had some influence in the development of Soviet music with its emphasis on the common man. The Eight Russian Folk Songs will remind listeners of the works of a number of later Russian composers, particularly Stravinsky, because he prompted the use of folk themes in serious music.

The eight pieces are divided so as to form three groups, each one beginning with a slow movement. There are two pieces in the first group, and three in the next two groups.

The first piece is called "Religious Song" and consists of a simple melody (in C major) repeated four times, with the themes overlapping in such a way as to remind one of "rounds." Each time the theme is repeated, a new instrument is featured. Gradually, the whole orchestra is involved, and the effect is of chiming church-bells, reminding one of Mussorgsky's Boris Godounov or Rimsky-Korsakov's Russian Easter Overture.

The second piece of the first group is a "Christmas Song" or "Koledo," in E minor. It is a quicker piece with a richly orchestrated mid-section.

The opening piece of the second section is called "Plaintive Song." In this piece, the celli have the major role. This is in A minor.

The next piece in the second section, "Humorous Song," is given over to the woodwinds. It is in A major.

The third piece of the middle group is the "Legend of the Birds," in D minor. It opens with an imitation of a chicken, reminding one of Rameau (!), and, less surprisingly, of Mussorgsky in Pictures at an Exhibition. This piece offers the richest orchestration so far.

The third group opens with a "Cradle Song," reminding some of the later Firebird by Stravinsky.

This is followed by a very short, but lively "Round Dance," for piccolo, in G Major.

The final piece is "Village Dance Song," in C major, showing off the entire orchestra.

The work begins and ends in the key of C major, with a midsection in keys related to the subdominant. This, together with the alternating rhythms, contributes to the unity of the work.


 
       
 

Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

 
  Violin I
Ervin Orbán, Concertmaster
Beth Jones +
Vera Jones +^
Susan Newsom
Vernon Stinebaugh
Lanelle Ross
David Neal

Violin II
Rosemary Manifold *
Carolyn Caldwell
Mary Moreland +^
Karen R. Frankhouser
Anne H. Boebel
Beth Guntermann

Viola
Ethel Anderson *
Delpha Laycock
David Johnson
Naida Walker
Cynthia Orbán

Cello
Waverly Conlan *
Beth Hoskins Carr
Daniel W. Pinkham +^
Valerie Goetz Doud
Laurie Kieffaber
Rebecca B. Waas

Bass
Calvin Bisha *
George Scheerer
Matt Greven

Piccolo
Denise Van Petten +
Mary Beth Gnagey

Flute
Jodi Stouffer *
Denise Van Petten +

Oboe
Stephanie Jones
Dawn Zumbrun
Sue Turnquist
English Horn
Stephanie Jones

Clarinet
Loa Traxler *+
Jane Grandstaff
Wes Yoder +

Bassoon
Mack Walker *
Takashi Yamano

Horn
Eric Jones *+ (co-)
Eric Joseph *+ (co-)
Kent Teeters
John Morse

Trumpet
Andrew Norman *
Steve Hammer
Ray Goelz +

Trombone
D. Larry Dockter *
David Schultz +#
David Pinkham +

Tuba
John Beery

Timpani
Chris Caldwell +

Percussion
Keith Crider +
Ray Goelz
Tom Miller +

Harpsichord
Susan Grant +

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
^ Denotes MSS Scholarship recipient
# Denotes M. Little Scholarship recipient
       
 
R. Gary DeavelR. Gary Deavel began piano lessons at the age of 6 at the Miami Valley Conservatory in Dayton, Ohio. During his high school years in Indiana he continued his study at the South Bend Conservatory under Gertrude Freepan.

He holds the Bachelor of Science degree in Music Education from Manchester College in Indiana where he studied organ and piano with Genita Speicher. Following the two years he spent in the Army as organist and choir director of the Main Post Chapel at Camp Pickett, Virginia, he studied at the Sherwood Music School in Chicago. From Sherwood he received both the Bachelor and Master of Music degrees in organ as a student of Hugh Price.

In 1956 he joined the faculty of Manchester College as an instructor in organ and music theory. In 1960 and 1962 he was awarded study grants from the Danforth Foundation for doctoral study at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, New York, from which institution he received the Ph.D. degree in music theory.

He is currently professor of music at Manchester College and organist at St. Robert's Catholic Church. He is married to the former Charlotte Schutz, who teaches English in the South Whitley middle school. They have two children, Philip, a lawyer in the Air Force stationed in Washington D.C., and Christine, a doctoral student at the University of Iowa.
Our narrator, Cheree Dolby, is in eighth grade at Manchester Junior High. She is active in many extracurricular activities including piano study, dance class, school newspaper staff, and cheerleading. Her parents are Dennis and Jeanne Dolby of North Manchester.