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Concert Program Cover

Second Concert of the 36th Season


Sunday, March 2nd, 1975
Manchester College Auditorium
Jack C. Laumer, Conductor

  Prelude to Die Meistersinger Richard Wagner  
  Flute Concerto No. 2 in D Major, K. 314 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart  

I. Allegro aperto
II. Andante ma non troppo
III. Allegro

  Harry Moskovitz, flute  
  Nocturnes Claude Debussy  


  Women's Chorus  
  Special thanks to Carol Streator for her help in rehearsing women's
chorus and to Robert Jones for arranging for Mr. Moskovitz's
appearance as flute soloist.

Program Notes by Teresa Metzger

  Prelude to Die Meistersinger Richard Wagner

Richard Wagner was botn in 1813 and died in 1883. His stepfather's death and his frequent moves to live with different family members made his schooling sporadic. In 1828 he turned seriously to the study of the techniques of musical composition, taking instruction from a private teacher. In 1831 he enrolled as a music student at the University of Leipzig.

He was an important composer for three reasons: he introduced the idea of a music drama, he broke down classical tonality, and he brought the German Romantic opera to its consummation.

In a music drama, Wagner felt the function of the music was to serve the ends of dramatic expression. The only important compositions were for the theatre, Wagner thought. Also along these lines was his conception of a Gesamkunstwerk (universal art work), where words, music, stages setting, and drama are all important.

He broke down Classical tonality by using obscure harmonic progression, chromatic chords, irregular resolutions, or unresolved chords.

He changed German Romantic opera by introducing the leitmotif in his opera. A leitmotif is a musical theme or motive associated with a particular person, place, or thing that recurs throughout the opera. He also enlarged his orchestras for opera. Rejecting "number" opera, he used a declamatory, endless melody for his singers. His phrase structure was asymetrical, overlapped, and used step or half step motion.

He built an opera house in Bayreuth, Germany, to stage his operas. One famous building aspect is the orchestra pit situated under the stage, giving his large orchestras greater sonority but not greater volume.

He composed Die Meistersinger, the ninth of his eleven operas, during the years 1862-67. The story involves the guild of Mastersingers in Nuremberg who lived in the 15th and 16th centuries.

There are five main leitmotifs heard in the prelude. Heard in this order, they are:

The Meistersinger Motive, played by the full orchestra.Meistersinger Motive

The Wakening Love motive, first heard by the flute, then oboe, flute again, and last the clarinet.
Wakening Love Motive

The Banner of the guild motive, first heard by the brass section.Banner of the Guild Motive

The Prize Song motive, played by the violins.Prize Song Motive

The Impatient Ardor motive played by the violins also.Impatient Ardor Motive

These motives are used in the overture to set the mood for the opera and to give the audience clues as to what characters and emotions will be important.

  Flute Concerto in D Major, K. 314 Wolfgang A. Mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart lived from 1756 to 1791. One of the most important composers of the Classical period, his main contributions were in opera, string quartets, symphonies, and pieces for the clavier. Born in Salzburg, Austria, he showed talent for music at an early age. He was a child prodigy on the piano and began composing at the age of six. His father, recognizing his son's talent, took Mozart on concert tours throughout Europe. Because of his early contact with all the kinds of composition in Western Europe, his music shows amazing maturity at that age. Evidently his composing sprang from an ever-present creativity that required little alteration once it was written down. He composed over 600 compositions, most of it on commission or for particular occasions (garden parties, weddings, birthdays, etc.)

The concerto, particularly the piano concerto, was more important in Mozart's work than in any other composer's of teh second half of the 18th century. He retained the use of three movements in fast-slow-fast order and the relatively greater length and weight in the first movement as compared to the other two movements. But his orchestra resembles the symphony ensembles of the lat 18th century rather than the solo-tutti ensembles of the early 18th century. Also, the solo instrument is given more prominence.

Mozart's Flute Concerto in D Major (K. 314) is the same concerto as the oboe concerto in C Major written in 1777. Mozart rewrote it for the Dutch amateur flutist and patron of music, de Jean, who had already played the Flute Concerto in G Major (K. 313) and was impatiently awaiting a new concerto to play. Because he was pressed for time and money, Mozart simply rewrote the oboe concerto.

The first movement follows the traditional form. The orchestra opens the lively allegro movement with a short introduction, playing the first theme. The flute enters, both orchestra and flute play the first and second themes. The short development begins with the statement of the first theme but quickly modulates into the minor mode. The recapitulation, introduced by the flute playing the first thime, leads to the cadenza by the flute. The orchestra finishes the movement with a short coda.

The second movement begins in G major, as traditionally expected. Andante in tempo, the lyrical melody is mainly played by the flute.

The third movement, in D major, is allegro in tempo. The flute introduces the theme which the orchestra restates. The theme is then varied throughout the rest of the piece.

  Nocturnes Claude Debussy

Claude Debussy was born in 1862 and died in 1918. A French composer, he composed in the Impressionistic style. His musical education included eleven years in the Paris Conservatory. In 1884 he obtained their highest honor, the Grand Prix de Rome. He left for Rome that year but returned to Paris in 1887 and lived there for the rest of his life. In 1888 he did travel to Bayreuth to hear Die Meistersinger, Wagner's most popular opera. Fascinated by Wagner, he realized the danger of being too influenced by him. Other influences were the Javanese music heard at the Parix Esposition Universelle in 1889, and the music of Erik Satie, a contemporary composer, whom he met in 1891. He never held any official appointments and rarely appeared in public as a conductor or a pianist. In 1910 he began to suffer from cancer, which lead him to work on smaller compositions, afraid that he wouldn't be able to finish larger works, such as opera.

Impressionism tried to evoke a mood of allusion and understatement. Pentatonic and whole tone scales, short motives, tone clusters, nonfunctional harmonies, added tone chords, and parallelism were used. Tonality was created by pedal points and rhythms were vague or used ostinatoes. Form was blurred, usually in ABA, rondo, or free form.

In orchestral works, colorful registers were exploited; e.g., the low register of the flute and clarinet and the upper register of the violin. Muted brass and percussive use of the celeste and piano were other aspects of Impressionism. Solos were prominent.

The Nocturnes, written in 1899, have three sections: Nuages, Fetes, and Sirenes. It uses a large orchestra but seldom has a large sound. Nuages is written in an ABA form. The English horn introduces the lyrical first theme. The B section theme is first stated by the flute. The A section returns with the English horn playing the melody.

Fetes, a livelier movement, has an A1B2BA1 form. English horn and clarinet introduce the A1 lyrical melody in its irregular meter. A regular meter and dotted rhythm is found in the A2 section, played by the woodwinds. A military style is created in the B section by the muted trumpets. The flute reinstates the A1 melody and a short coda finalizes the movement.

Sirenes is in free form. It features women's voices in eight parts, symbolizing the sirens of long ago.

Of this music, Debussy wrote:

"Nuages renders the immutable aspect of the sky and the slow, solemn motion of the clouds, fading away in grey tones lightly tinged with white. Fetes gives us the vibrating atmosphere with sudden flashes of light. There is also the episode of the procession (a dazzling fantastic vision) which passes through the festive scene and becomes merged in it. But the background remains persistently the same: the festival, with its blending of music and luminous dust, participating in the cosmic rhythm. Sirenes depicts the sea and its countless rhythms and presently, amongst the waves silvered by the moonlight, is heard the mysterious song of the Sirens as they laugh and pass on."


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

  Violin I
Vernon Stinebaugh, Co-principal
Kay E. Miller, Co-principal +
Tim Smith +
Esther Carpenter
Harold Davidson
Betsey Rupp

Violin II
Wendy Myers *+
Frank Horner +
Annette Dawson +
Vera Wickline
Ernest Zala
Louis Durflinger

Deanna Brown *+
Robert Curry +
Jeanine Wine +

Susan Favorite *+
Norman Waggy +
John Mann

Mark Tomlonson *+
Randy Gratz +
Kevin Ryan +
Herbert Ingraham

Muriel Keeney

Paula Coutz *+
Jane Snyder +

Stephanie Jones *
George Blossom
Teresa Barber +
Robert Jones *
Michel Steck
Jamie Van Buskirk +

Thomas Owen *
Lovena Miller +
Kim Harker

Steve Farnsley *
Cindy Whaley
Barbara Derr +
Mark Bechtel +

Tom Molinaro *+
Leonard Webb +
Steve Hammer +

Bruce Hughes *+
Steve Wiser +
Dan Garver +

Joseph Griffith +

Diane Laumer
Matt Sprunger +

Bridgett Stuckey

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student

Women's Chorus Personnel

Carol Streator
Carol McAmis
Lillian Miller
Teresa Metzger
Jane Willmert
Mary Lutz
Peggy Howenstine
Bernice Hornaday
Fran Brainard
Bonnie Merritt
Pam Everett
Barbara Faulkner
Mary Coe
Beverly Moore
Judy Schultz
Delia Miller
Harry MoskovitzHarry Moskovitz ranks with the most eminent flutists of our day, having been identified with such outstanding musical organizations as the NBC symphony, CBS Symphony, St. Louis Symphony, New York City Center Symphony and Opera Orchestras, the Voice of Firestone Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Stadium Concerts, solo flute of the Goldman Band and Bell Telephone Hour. He has also recorded under all the major labels.

His background as a music educator is equally impressive. He has studied extensively at both the New England Conservatory in Boston and at the Juilliard Graduate School in New York -- and is himself now on the faculty of the Long Island Institute of Music. His unique ability to inspire his pupils and instill in them a large measure of his own profound love for the flute and flute music is perhaps the most significant factor in the success of his teaching.

Broad experience in the performing and teaching arts is further enriched by his deep interest in the historical backgrounds of the flute. His collection of flute literature is among the finest in America today -- as is his library of historic flute recordings, some of which date back to the days of wax cylinders. In addition he owns an excellent collection of instruments, both historic and modern -- many of which have been photographed on color slides and the presentation of which comprises a fascinating part of his clinic lecture program. He is featured in "Famous Musicians at Work," a series of educational color film strips produced by Warren Schloat Productions of Pleasantville, New York.

Mr. Moskovitz is appearing as soloist with the North Manchester Civic Symphony and as flute clinician at Manchester College on Monday, March 3, in cooperation with the W.T. Armstrong Co., Inc., flute manufacturers of Elkhart, Indiana.