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Concert Program Cover

Third Concert of the 29th Season


Sunday, May 26th, 1968
Manchester College Auditorium
David C. McCormick, Conductor

  Overture to Candide Leonard Bernstein  
  Symphony No. 82 in C Major ("The Bear") Franz Joseph Haydn  

I. Vivace assai
II. Allegretto
III. Minuet and Trio
IV. Finale -- Vivace

  The Wabash Valley Junior Ballet  
  Suite from The Nutcracker, Op. 71a Peter Tschaikowsky  

I. Miniature Overture
II. Dance of the Sugar Plum Fairy
      Sylvia Camp
III. Dance of the Merrymakers
      Mary Miller, Judy Reynolds, Loretta Walker
IV. Arabian Dance
      Cindy Armey, Gayle Manby, Wendy Walter, Eugene Buckley, Toula Smyrniotis
V. Chinese Dance
      Sarah Duffey, Mary Duffey, Rosie Sweet
VI. Russian Dance
      Lissa Sposeep, Kendall Rogers
VII. Waltz of the Flowers
      Nancy Mossmann, Sue Dannacher, Judy Reynolds

  Ballet Corps: Jennifer Cloud, Christine Dingledy, Lynn Magley,
Jennifer Price, Stephanie Wilson, Jennifer Yarnelle
  Dance Rhythms, Op. 58 Wallingford Riegger  
  Dance titled "Ump-Ditty-Tum" choreographed by Pauline Geyer especially for this program.

Sylvia Camp, Vicki Kafoure, Judy Reynolds, Loretta Walker
Rosie Sweet, Corinne Kerr, Nancy Owens, Sue Hipskind, Mary Miller, Tracy Atkinson

Program Notes

  Overture to Candide Leonard Bernstein
(b. 1918)

Leonard Bernstein is one of the most competent musicians of our century. In an age of specialization and conformity he is an individualist who has succeeded as a concert pianist, conductor, composer, television personality, and musical commentator. His compositions include symphonies, ballets, and popular songs.

Like its creator, Candide cannot be categorized in a single compartment. It is an operetta, based on Voltaire's humorous story, in the musical tradition of Broadway theatre, yet the overture has become a staple of symphony orchestra repertoire. Two important melodies are stated and repeated, after which a coda presents new material.

  Symphony No. 82 in C Major ("The Bear") Franz Joseph Haydn

Haydn often is called the father of the symphony, a title deserved not because he actually developed the form, for that was an accomplishment far too complex for any one man, but rather because he lived in the years when the symphony became the dominant orchestra form and Haydn's name was the most distinguished of the time. There are one hundred and four Haydn symphonies, though his fame among modern audiences is based primarily upon a familiarity with only the last dozen of these.

Haydn's career exemplifies the status of musicians in the eighteenth century. He was born into a musical family and began musical training at the age of five. At eight he was a choirboy in a Vienna church and at twenty-seven became a court musician, a position with little more statue than that of a household servant. Haydn's life was spent in this situation in which his primary duty was to provide music for the prince, for until the eighteenth century serious music had been supported primarily by the church and royalty. However, during Haydn's lifetime the emerging middle class was creating a demand for commercial concerts, and in 1786 Haydn was commissioned to compose six symphonies, numbers 82-87, for one of the most proficient orchestras in existence, Les Concerts de la Loge Olympique, of Paris.

Two distinguishing characteristics of symphonic form are that the music is intended to be heard with some degree of intellectual involvement, for it is not simply entertainment or background sound; and its aesthetic impression is based upon contrast within a unified structure. Contrast and unity co-exist in every aspect of a symphony. For example, the complete work is divided into four movements, yet the movements are related in regard to their tonal center, or home note of C. The epitome of contrast and unity is the sonata-allegro form utilized in the first and fourth movements of Symphony No. 82.

Contrast is embodied in the first theme, which opens with a brilliant outlining of a C major chord followed by a smooth, delicate waltz-like motive. Portions of the opening theme carry the motion forward through a transition to the contrasting key center in G and a new theme. This second key center is re-emphasized by ascending scales in the bass followed by descending lines in upper voices. At this point the music repeats verbatim from the beginning, after which materials of the first theme are developed through a sequence of tonal centers. A brief development of the second theme leads to a recapitulation of all materials, not in the tonic key of C major.

The second movement affords contrast by being in the key of F, but within the movement there is an unusual degree of unity. There is only one theme, an elegant melody stated three times with varied instrumentation. Between statements of the theme there is a variation in F minor, the first rather simple and the second more complex with florid passages for the lower string instruments. The movement closes with a coda summarizing the preceding materials.

The minuet is a dignified dance that was popular in the eighteenth century. Emphasis is upon melody and rhythm, as would be appropriate for dancing, with little development. The movement is in three sections, with the third a repetition of the first and the second affording contrast of separate material.

The finale opens with a repeated bass note which has caused the symphony to be labeled "The Bear." As in the first movement, sonata-allegro form is used and there are two themes of contrasting styles and key centers. However, the development section treats only the first theme. The movement closes with a re-statement of both themes in the tonic of C major.

  Suite from The Nutcracker, Op. 71a Peter Tschaikowsky

Tschaikowsky's setting of The Nutcracker story is probably the most popular work in the dance repertoire today. It is based on a fairy tale, The Nutcracker and the King of the Mice, by the nineteenth-century German romantic author E.T.A. Hoffman. In the story, a nutcracker in the shape of a toy soldier is a favorite Christmas toy. The toy magically becomes a prince and takes the heroine to the enchanted Kingdom of Sweets. This afternoon's performance will present dances that occur as a series of divertissements to entertain the prince and heroine in the Kingdom of Sweets. The dances are preceded by a short overture to set the "once-upon-a-time" mood of fairy tales.

  Dance Rhythms, Op. 58 Wallingford Riegger

During the 1930s Wallingford Riegger was associated with dance groups and he was particularly impressed by the modern dance movement that gained momentum in those years. He felt an affinity for dancers and stated: "Dancers, not having studied harmony, are not prejudiced against the 'modern' musical idiom, so from that standpoint I have enjoyed working with them and have developed a versatility of style."

Dance Rhythms was composed in 1955, not as ballet music, but as a musical study in rhythm and texture. Choreographer Pauline Geyer has created a dance capitalizing on Riegger's rhythmic interest. In reference to the rhythm the dance is titled simply "Ump-Ditty-Tum." The thoughts giving rise to the choreography are as follows:

When man was created, rhythm was present. Melody came later. Rhythm is independent, but melody is dependent upon rhythm. In musical composition rhythm and melody become interdependent.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

  Violin I
Vernon Stinebaugh, Concertmaster
Pamela Petry +
Lucy Eshelman +
Ruth Berkebile
Mary Berkebile
Harold Davidson
Ernest Zala

Violin II
Loretta Wood *+
Ronald Fleming +
Donna Holsopple +
Larry Klingler +
David Shaw
Debra Tudor +
Becki Wilcox
Esther Mock

Shirley Royer *+
Frances Early
Ethel Anderson
Cora Shultz
Mac Marlow

Jerry Lessig *
Lenore Marlowe
Mack Whitmore +

Herbert Ingraham *
Allen Johnson +
Samuel Flueckiger

Patricia Brewer *+
Ann Shaw
Peter Figert *
Freda Clark +

Evelyn Lawrence *+
Diana Wine +
Valerie Fike +

Deborah Maurer *+
Robert Leininger +

Thomas Listenfelt *+
Jerry Eller +
Mary Kay Cullison +

Robert Bonner *+
Jeffrey Ott +
John Holsinger +

Forrest Bedke *+
David Voelker
Daniel Garver
Steve Hoffeibert

John Sprinkle
John Paulsen +
Larry Clark +
Steve Kellam +
Carey Kelsey +
Edward Davis +

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
The Wabash Valley Junior Ballet was incorporated in 1964 in Wabash, Indiana, as a non-profit organization to promote the image of dance as a fine art. It is guided by a board of directors made up of Wabash citizens and is supported through memberships, sponsorships and special gifts. Performers in the company are young residents of Wabash and the surrounding area who have passed an audition before a group of judges from other dance companies. Continuing auditions are required for promotion and for maintaining membership in the company. The group employs ballet as the basic technique, but the dancers are also trained in modern dance and jazz performance. In its yearly program the company regularly engages guest teachers and choreographers. The company is a member of the Association of American Dance Companies and the Northeast Regional Ballet Festival Association, which met in Wabash in 1967.

Artistic director of the Wabash Valley Junior Ballet is Pauline Geyer, who also serves as vice president of the Northeast Regional Ballet Festival Association. In addition to her training in dance, Mrs. Geyer has studied English and journalism. She is a graduate of Indiana University and has done further study at Northwestern University. At both schools she was involved in dance activities.

Sylvia Camp serves as assistant to the director. Mrs. Camp studied at the School of American Ballet in New York, at Indiana University, and with Maria Tallchief and Jillana of the New York City Ballet.