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Concert Program Cover

Second Concert of the 29th Season


Tuesday, March 5th, 1968
Manchester High School Gymnasium
David C. McCormick, Conductor

  Overture to Rosamunde, Op. 26, D. 797 Franz Schubert  
  Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Ludwig van Beethoven  

I. Allegro con brio
II. Andante con moto
III. Allegro
IV. Allegro

  Rhapsody for Orchestra and Alto Saxophone, L 98 Claude Debussy  
  Concerto for Saxophone and Orchestra Henk Badings  

I. Allegro
II. Notturno
III. Rondo

  Eugene Rousseau, alto saxophone  
  Hoe-Down from Rodeo Aaron Copland  

Program Notes

  Overture to Rosamunde, Op. 26, D. 797 Franz Schubert

Rosamunde overture is part of the incidental music Schubert composed for a drama by Wilhemine de Chezy that was presented in 1823 and received only two performances. The music was forgotten until 1867, when discovered in Vienna by two Englishmen: George Grove, compiler of the famous music dictionary, and Arthur Sullivan, renowned for his operettas.

The overture is in classic sonata-allegro form introduced by a series of dramatic chords and a song-like melody much like those heard in operas of the day. The main body of the overture is in fast duple time, beginning with a light melody stated by violins. The full orchestra enters and a transition leads away from the tonic key so that contrast is achieved when a new key center is established and the second theme is stated -- a more smoothly flowing melody played by the woodwinds. A third theme, more a repetition of a short motive than a full melody, receives extensive development, after which the first two themes return, now both in the tonic key. The overture closes with a brief coda of new material presented by the full orchestra.

  Symphony No. 5 in C Minor, Op. 67 Ludwig van Beethoven

If one symphonic work could be designated as being the most familiar to the widest audience, undoubtedly the choice would be Beethoven's Symphony Number 5 in C Minor. The symphony has been popular with concert audiences ever since its introduction in 1808. Coincidence of the opening motive, three short and one long note, with the Morse code "V" and the use of that motive as a symbol for Allied victory during World War II made at least that part of the symphony virtually universally recognized.

A basic reason for the symphony's popularity is the ease with which the listener can follow the musical structure. The familiar opening rhythm re-appears in many guises throughout each of the four movements, thus serving as an easily grasped unifying factor.

The first movement is completely dominated by the four-note rhythm. Even the lyrical second theme is accompanied by the "V" in the bass line.

The second movement is a set of variations on a theme having two contrasting sections. The theme opens as an expressive song stated by violas and violoncellos. The second portion of the theme is built on a slow version of the "V" rhythm.

In the eighteenth century the symphony third movement was traditionally a minuet, the stately three-quarter time dance of the period. Beethoven retained the triple meter and three-part form of the minuet but increased the tempo and changed the character of the movement. Low strings begin in the manner of an awkward dance followed by a majestic theme, first stated by the horns, based on the "V" rhythm. The movement's middle section is a contrapuntal development of a quick theme that has become infamous among performers because of its extreme difficulty for bass players. The third section is a repetition of the first, but developed with varied instrumental settings.

Unity of the total symphony is increased by connecting the third and fourth movements. The third movement is in the "home" or tonic key of C minor. As is normal, the end of the movement progresses to a G major chord, which listeners in Western culture are conditioned to regard as the chord leading to the final chord of the movement, in this case C minor. However, Beethoven deceives the listener and instead moves to A-flat and thus prolongs the ending. When the expected major chord again sounds, it grows in loudness and excitement so that the C chord is inevitable. When the resolution eventually occurs it is not the end of the movement but rather the beginning of the next movement, and is C major rather than C minor, a distinction often associated with triumph and grandeur.

The fourth movement might be described as being similar to a grand march, for which Beethoven expanded his orchestra with instruments traditionally limited to military and operatic music -- piccolo, contrabassoon, and three trombones. After the march-like first theme, horns and woodwinds sound a typical field signal and a transition leads to a second theme that affords contrast in being more florid and by being in a contrasting key. This second key center is confirmed by a third theme characterized by an accented first note. The second theme is developed through changing key centers and from this development a fourth theme appears, initially inconspicuous as an accompaniment figure and then growing in prominence until triumphantly stated by the trombones. Respite from the increasing intensity comes with a re-appearance of the third movement "V" theme which serves as a transition to the tonic key. The pace quickens to a presto and the symphony closes by repeatedly hammering the C major chord to provide the listener with complete fulfillment of his tonal wanderings.

  Rhapsody for Orchestra and Alto Saxophone, L 98 Claude Debussy

The Rhapsody for Orchestra and Saxophone was commissioned in 1895 by a lady dilettante saxophonist, Mrs. Elise Hall of Boston. Preoccupied with other composition projects, it took Debussy ten years to complete a first draft of the piece. The free romantic form of the piece presented some difficulty in arriving at a title. Debussy first labeled it Fantasie, then Rhapsodie mauresque, and finally Rhapsody. The intimate relationship of the saxophone with the musical texture is reflected in the order of words in the title -- a work for orchestra plus saxophone, not a solo with accompaniment.

Debussy never completed the piece. It eventually was orchestrated by Roger-Ducasse after Debussy's death and was first performed in 1919.

  Concerto for Saxophone and Orchestra Henk Badings

The name Henk Badings is associated with avant-garde electronic music. Yet his Concerto for Saxophone, composed in 1952, is far from being avant-garde. In fact, it contains many of the sounds familiar in American popular music two and three decades ago.

  Hoe-Down from Rodeo Aaron Copland

The name Henk Badings is associated withi avant-garde electronic music. Yet his Concerto for Saxophone, composed in 1952, is far from being avant-garde. In fact, it contains many of the sounds familiar in American popular music two and three decades ago.


Manchester Symphony Orchestra Personnel

  Violin I
Vernon Stinebaugh, Concertmaster
Pamela Petry +
Pauline Cork
Joyce Butler
Lucy Eshelman +
Ernest Zala

Violin II
Loretta Wood *+
Ronald Fleming +
Donna Holsopple +
Larry Klingler +
David Shaw
Debra Tudor +
Becki Wilcox
Esther Mock

Shirley Royer *+
Frances Early
Ethel Anderson
Cora Shultz
Mac Marlow

Barbara Smith *
Jerry Lessig
Millard Irion
Lenore Marlowe

Herbert Ingraham *
Allen Johnson +
Calvin Bischa
Samuel Flueckiger

Vicky Henricks +

Patricia Brewer *+
Deena Long +
Vicky Henricks +
Peter Figert *
Leta Gearhart +
Sue Schuessler

English Horn
Peter Figert

Evelyn Lawrence *+
Diana Wine +

Deborah Maurer *+
Robert Leininger +

Thomas Listenfelt *+
Jerry Eller +
Mary Kay Cullison +

Robert Bonner *+
Jeffrey Ott +
John Holsinger +

Forrest Bedke *+
David Voelker
Daniel Garver

Neal Graham +
Janice Miller +
Sandra Miller +
Robert Shull +

* Denotes principal
+ Denotes MC student
Eugene RousseauEugene Rousseau is one of the four finest saxophone artists in the world today. He is one of those performers who has made it no longer necessary to explain that the saxophone is a medium for serious music.

Dr. Rousseau is a graduate of Chicago Musical College, Northwestern University, and the University of Iowa; and he studied with Marcel Mule at the Paris Conservatory. Dr. Rousseau has performed with major orchestras and in recital throughout Europe and the United States. In 1963 he served as musical representative for the United States Trade Fair in Conakry, Guinea, West Africa. He is a member of the faculty of the School of Music at Indiana University where he teaches saxophone and conducts a wind ensemble.